What Is A Kidney Infection
Kidney infections are technically a type of UTI, since kidneys are part of your upper urinary tract, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases . These infections are typically caused by bacteria called Escherichia coli that is usually found in the large intestine but can wreak havoc when it finds itself in the urinary tract.
Kidney infections are one of the most common urologic conditions that we see in general urology practice, Fara Bellows, M.D., a urologist at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, tells SELF. Still, kidney infections are no joke.
This is a serious organ infection, and people need to take care of it, urologist David Kaufman, M.D., of New Yorks Central Park Urology, tells SELF. Bladder infections are really uncomfortable, but kidney infections can be deadly.
Risk Factors For A Kidney Infection
There are a few things that can up your risk factor of contracting a kidney infection, according to the Mayo Clinic, and some you have zero control over:
Having avagina. The urethra, that small tube that carries urine out of your body, is shorter in people with vaginas than it is in people with penises. That makes it easier for bacteria to travel from outside your body into the bladder. Your urethra is also close to your vagina and anus, which opens you up to more chances that bacteria from one of those areas will get into your urinary tract.
Having something blocking your urinary tract. That can be anything that slows down the flow of urine or makes it hard for you to fully empty your bladder when you pee, like a kidney stone.
Other potential risk factors include having damage to the nerves around your bladder, using a urinary catheter for the first time, and having a condition like vesicoureteral reflux, which causes urine to flow the wrong way, the Mayo Clinic says.
Slowed Bone Growth And Deformities
Damaged kidneys must work harder to clear phosphorus from the body. High levels of phosphorus cause lower levels of calcium in the blood, resulting in the following series of events:
- When a persons blood calcium level becomes too low, the parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone.
- Parathyroid hormone removes calcium from bones and places it into the blood, raising a persons blood calcium level at the risk of harming bones.
- A low calcitriol level also leads to an increased level of parathyroid hormone.
If mineral and bone disorder in CKD remains untreated in adults, bones gradually become thin and weak, and a person with the condition may begin to feel bone and joint pain. Mineral and bone disorder in CKD also increases a persons risk of bone fractures.
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Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
Typically, a kidney infection develops after a UTI has already affected your urethra the tube through which urine exits your body and your bladder. This area is known as your lower urinary tract.
If you recognize the earlier signs of a UTI, you can seek treatment and usually avoid a kidney infection. But its possible that your symptoms wont be severe enough to get your attention until the infection has spread to your kidneys.
Whether or not youre also experiencing kidney-specific symptoms, its important to look out for signs of a UTI affecting your lower urinary tract:
Painful Urination Known as dysuria, pain during urination is usually caused by inflammation in the lining of your urethra.
Frequent Urination A UTI can cause frequent and intense urges to urinate, even when youve recently emptied your bladder.
Thats because an inflamed bladder from your infection may be more sensitive to pressure from your urine, giving you the sensation that your bladder is full even when its not.
Treatment For Reactive Arthritis
There is no cure for reactive arthritis. Medical care aims to manage the symptoms until you get better. Treatment may include:
- antibiotics to destroy the bacteria that caused the initial infection. However, antibiotics dont treat the symptoms of reactive arthritis
- if you developed reactive arthritis as a result of infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, your sexual partner or partners must also be treated with antibiotics
- eye drops or ointment to treat conjunctivitis or steroid drops to treat iritis
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be used to ease your joint inflammation and pain
- corticosteroids if you have severe pain and inflammation in your joints, then your doctor may prescribe a stronger anti-inflammatory medicine called a corticosteroid. These can be taken as tablets or given by injection directly into a joint, muscle or other soft tissue
- disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs may be given if your reactive arthritis persists for a prolonged period. They work on controlling your overactive immune system. They help relieve pain and inflammation, and can also reduce or prevent joint damage
- physiotherapy can help to keep your affected joints mobile and strengthen the surrounding ligaments, tendons and muscles
- low-impact exercises such as walking, stationary cycling, water aerobics or swimming may be helpful to keep you moving and active. Talk with your doctor before starting any exercise program.
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What Causes Reactive Arthritis
Reactive arthritis is not contagious, but it’s caused by some infections that are contagious. The infections that most often cause the disease are spread through sexual contact, the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It can cause infections in the bladder, urethra, penis, or vagina.
Other infections that can cause reactive arthritis infect the gut, like salmonella. This infection can come from eating food or handling objects that have the bacteria.
Reactive arthritis may also be linked to genes. People with reactive arthritis often have the HLA-B27 gene. But many people have this gene without getting reactive arthritis.
How Is Septic Arthritis Diagnosed In A Child
Early diagnosis of septic arthritis is important. This is to prevent long-term damage to the joint. Your childs healthcare provider will take your childs health history and give him or her a physical exam. Tests may also be done, such as:
- Removal of joint fluid.;This is done to check for white blood cells and bacteria.
- Blood tests.;These are done to look for bacteria.
- Phlegm, spinal fluid, and urine tests.;These are done to look for bacteria and find the source of infection.
- X-ray.;This test uses a small amount of radiation to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs.
- Bone scan.;This imaging test uses a tiny amount of a radioactive substance to look for arthritis changes in the joints.
- MRI.;This test uses large magnets and a computer to make detailed images of organs and other tissues.
- Radionuclide scans.;These scans use a tiny amount of a radioactive substance to look at organs and the blood flow to them.
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Complications Of Kidney Infections
Most kidney infections are treated successfully without complications, although some people may develop further problems.
Complications of a kidney infection are rare, but you’re more likely to;develop them if you:
- are a child
- rapid heartbeat
Blood poisoning;is a medical emergency that usually requires admission to a hospital;intensive care unit while antibiotics are used to fight the infection.
If you’re taking certain medications for diabetes, such as metformin or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they may be temporarily withdrawn until you recover. This is because they can cause kidney damage during an episode of blood poisoning.
What Is Reactive Arthritis
Reactive arthritis is a rare inflammatory disease of the joints that occurs in reaction to an infection occurring in another part of the body. It sometimes is referred to as Reiterâs syndrome, Reiterâs disease, or Reiterâs arthritis. However, these terms only describe a small group of people living with ReA. The condition tends to occur in young adults and more frequently in men than women.
The initial infection is caused by certain groups of bacteria infecting the gastrointestinal or urinary system. After an interval that could last for days to weeks , the arthritis occurs. In most cases, it only affects one or a few joints of the legs.The diagnosis depends on the typical symptoms, clinical findings, course of disease, and the exclusion of other causes for arthritis. Initial treatment consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs .ReA can vary in severity and normally occurs as an isolated illness with no further problems and a good prognosis. However, some people may experience persistent symptoms. ,,,,
If you think that you might have reactive arthritis, you can try using Ada to find out more about your symptoms.
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What Are The Complications Of Reactive Arthritis
The main symptoms of reactive arthritis will often go away in a few months. Some people may have mild arthritis symptoms for up to a year. Others may develop mild, long-term arthritis. Up to half of people will have a flare-up of reactive arthritis in the future. In rare cases, the condition may lead to chronic, severe arthritis. This can lead to joint damage.
Fatigue Being Tired All Of The Time
Why this happens:
Healthy kidneys make a hormone called erythropoietin , or EPO, that tells your body to make oxygen-carrying red blood cells. As the kidneys fail, they make less EPO. With fewer red blood cells to carry oxygen, your muscles and brain tire very quickly. This is anemia, and it can be treated.
What patients said:
I was constantly exhausted and didn’t have any pep or anything.
I would sleep a lot. I’d come home from work and get right in that bed.
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What Is Septic Arthritis
Its most commonly caused by bacteria, from an infected cut or wound. The bacteria travels through the blood supply to a joint, which then becomes infected.
It can also be caused by a virus, skin infection or bacteria getting into your body through the site of an injection or surgery. It is sometimes called bacterial or infectious arthritis.
Any joint in the body can be affected by septic arthritis. It can affect more than one joint, though this is rare. It most commonly affects the knees and hips.
If youre diagnosed with septic arthritis, the infection needs treating as soon as possible to prevent it causing long-term damage and other complications to your general health.
How Ra Affects The Kidneys
The same chronic, systemic inflammation that targets your joints in arthritis can also affect other parts of your body such as your heart, lungs, and kidneys. Uncontrolled inflammation may damage cells that line blood vessels and contribute to atherosclerosis, a disease where plaque can build up inside renal arteries , explains;Brad H. Rovin, MD, director of the division of nephrology and Vice Chairman of Medicine for Research at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus. Over time, the plaque hardens and narrows the arteries, limiting the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your kidneys, which may lead to kidney disease.
Another potential kidney problem for people with long-standing, poorly controlled rheumatoid arthritis: amyloidosis.
This disease occurs when an abnormal protein called an amyloid builds up in your kidneys. Amyloidosis can develop in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions like RA or chronic infections, says Dr. Rovin.
Research also shows RA patients have a higher risk of developing glomerulonephritis an inflammation of the kidneys filtering units , which can impair kidney function and lead to chronic kidney disease.
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How Infection Can Lead To Severe Knee Pain
It is possible for severe knee pain to be caused by an infection. How? Most often, bacteria or another type of microorganism infects the tissues in or around the knee joint. Other times, a separate infection, such as a stomach virus, leads to an auto-immune reaction that causes knee pain.
This page describes several ways infection can lead to severe knee pain.
How Are Urinary Tract Infections Diagnosed
Your doctor will use the following tests to diagnose a urinary tract infection:
- Urinalysis: This test will examine the urine for red blood cells, white blood cells and bacteria. The number of white and red blood cells found in your urine can actually indicate an infection.
- Urine culture: A urine culture is used to determine the type of bacteria in your urine. This is an important test because it helps determine the appropriate treatment.
If your infection does not respond to treatment or if you keep getting infections over and over again, your doctor may use the following tests to examine your urinary tract for disease or injury:
- Ultrasound: In this test, sound waves create an image of the internal organs. This test is done on top of your skin, is painless and doesnt typically need any preparation.
- Cystoscopy: This test uses a special instrument fitted with a lens and a light source to see inside the bladder from the urethra.
- CT scan: Another imaging test, a CT scan is a type of X-ray that takes cross sections of the body . This test is much more precise than typical X-rays.
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What Is Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease is kidney damage that occurs slowly over many years, often due to diabetes or high blood pressure. Once damaged, the kidneys cant filter blood as they should. This damage can cause wastes to build up in the body and other problems that can harm a persons health, including mineral and bone disorder.
What Is The Best Treatment For Reactive Arthritis
The treatment of reactive arthritis can vary depending on the underlying infection that triggered the condition in the first place. Also, the treatment can differ depending on the symptoms present and on how the affected person reacts to the initial medication. ,,,
Treatment generally covers these three areas:
For some people with ReA, it is necessary to take antibiotics to treat the underlying infection that triggered the condition.
This may apply if:
- There is an ongoing urinary tract infection or STD.
- particularly if itâs caused by chlamydia
This does not apply if:
- the underlying gastroenteritis
- is mild
- is caused by a virus.
It is generally not recommended to take any antibiotics if there is no clear reason to do so.
The treatment of the arthritis itself aims at reducing inflammation and suppressing the bodyâs autoimmune reaction. Two stages can be distinguished: ,,
a) treating an acute ReAb) treating a chronic ReA- lasting six months or longer- not reacting to previous treatment efforts.
a) treating an acute ReA:
Fortunately, in most cases reactive arthritis will resolve by itself and does not result in any joint destruction. Therefore, the treatment goal is to relieve the symptoms.Initial treatment consists of:
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Diagnosis Of Chronic Kidney Disease
Blood and urine tests
Blood and urine tests are essential. They confirm the decline in kidney function.
When loss of kidney function reaches a certain level in chronic kidney disease, the levels of chemicals in the blood typically become abnormal.
Urea and creatinine, metabolic waste products that are normally filtered out by the kidneys, are increased.
Blood becomes moderately acidic.
Potassium in the blood is often normal or only slightly increased but can become dangerously high.
Calcium and calcitriol in the blood decrease.
Phosphate and parathyroid hormone levels increase.
Hemoglobin is usually lower .
Potassium can become dangerously high when kidney failure reaches an advanced stage or if people ingest large amounts of potassium or take a drug that prevents the kidneys from excreting the potassium.
Analysis of the urine may detect many abnormalities, including protein and abnormal cells.
Ultrasonography is often done to rule out obstruction and check the size of the kidneys. Small, scarred kidneys often indicate that loss of kidney function is chronic. Determining a precise cause becomes increasingly difficult as chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage.
Removing a sample of tissue from a kidney for examination may be the most accurate test, but it is not recommended if results of an ultrasound examination show that the kidneys are small and scarred.
Types Of Bone & Joint Infections
NYU Langone physicians are experienced in identifying and treating bone infections, known as osteomyelitis, and joint infections, or septic arthritis. These infections begin when disease-carrying bacteria enter the body, often after a trauma or a surgical procedure, and spread to the bones and joints through the bloodstream. Without prompt treatment, bone and joint infections can become long-term conditions.
Many types of bacteria can cause bone and joint infections, including Staphylococcus aureus, also called staph, Enterobacter, and Streptococcus.
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Drink Plenty Of Liquids
Drinking plenty of liquids, particularly water, will help to wash bacteria from your bladder and urinary tract.
Drinking cranberry juice or taking cranberry extracts may also help prevent urinary tract infections .;However, you should;avoid cranberry juice or extracts if you’re taking warfarin, a medicine used to prevent blood clots.;Cranberry juice can make the effects of warfarin more potent, so there’s a risk of excessive bleeding.
What Causes A Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections are caused by microorganisms usually bacteria that enter the urethra and bladder, causing inflammation and infection. Though a UTI most commonly happens in the urethra and bladder, bacteria can also travel up the ureters and infect your kidneys.
More than 90% of bladder infection cases are caused by E. coli, a bacterium normally found in the intestines.
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