What Are The Adverse Side Effects Of Magnesium Citrate
Magnesium citrate is an over-the-counter medication used to alleviate symptoms associated with constipation 3. This medication, which contains the naturally-occurring mineral magnesium, works by increasing the amount of water present within the digestive tract, which can help induce stool production. Patients should discuss the adverse side effects of magnesium citrate with a doctor before beginning to use this medication 13.
Easy Ways To Prevent Kidney Stones
Did you know that one in ten people will have a kidney stone over the course of a lifetime? Recent studies have shown that kidney stone rates are on the rise across the country. Those in the know believe that some major misconceptions may be the culprit.
The National Kidney Foundation has teamed up with Dr. Allan Jhagroo, a kidney stone specialist at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, to help you stay stone-free by debunking some of the major kidney stone myths and misconceptions.
How To Prevent Kidney Stones Naturally
Anyone whos had a kidney stone will tell you that theyre one of the worst medical problems you can ever experience. Kidney stones are a common and painful chronic condition seen in otherwise healthy patients, and one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. About a million;people in the United States;are treated for;kidney stones each year, and the prevalence in adult men is almost 12% and around 6% in adult women.
Stones are most common in caucasian adults between the ages of 20 and 50, and once someone develops a stone, they are far more likely to develop another stone in the future. Like most chronic diseases, the incidence of kidney stones has been increasing over the past 30 years. This is likely due to the variety of dietary and lifestyle changes weve made as Americans which arent conducive to good health.
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Magnesium In The Body
Some of the major roles of magnesium in your body include helping manage nerve and muscle function, ensuring appropriate bone growth, regulating energy production and protein synthesis, and easing nausea and constipation. Magnesium deficiency is rare in most healthy people. If your intake of magnesium is low, your kidneys help keep your body from getting rid of too much magnesium. However, magnesium levels may be deficient if your dietary intake is poor, if you have alcoholism or a malabsorptive disorder, or use certain medications. Foods such as nuts, seeds, whole-grains and green leafy vegetables are good sources of magnesium.
- Some of the major roles of magnesium in your body include helping manage nerve and muscle function, ensuring appropriate bone growth, regulating energy production and protein synthesis, and easing nausea and constipation.
Calcium Oxalate And Calcium Phosphate Stones
Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stones, and can be either calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. As mentioned, good hydration is important to prevent calcium stones. It may be surprising, but results of a randomized clinical trial show that people with calcium kidney stones should not cut back on dietary calcium. In fact, they should consume the recommended daily allowance of calcium . Why? Calcium binds to oxalate in the intestine and prevents its absorption through the gut, so there is less in the urine to form stones. Ideally, calcium should come from food. Talk with your doctor before taking calcium supplements, and increasing fluid intake might be beneficial depending on how much calcium you take.
Foods high in oxalates can increase the amount of oxalate in the urine. Consume these in moderation.
Calcium phosphate stones are less common than calcium oxalate stones. Causes include hyperparathyroidism , renal tubular acidosis , and urinary tract infections. It is important to understand if one of these conditions is behind the formation of calcium phosphate stones.
Good hydration can help prevent recurrence of calcium stones. In addition, thiazide diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide can help the kidney absorb more calcium, leaving less of it in the urine where it can form stones. Potassium citrate is another medication that can bind to calcium and help keep calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in the urine from forming into stones.
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Treatment And When To See A Doctor
If a person suspects that a kidney stone is the cause of substantial pain or discomfort, it is important to see a doctor.
Although most people experience no long-term consequences from kidney stones, they can be extremely painful and require medical monitoring.
In most cases, treating kidney stones involves increasing fluid intake, taking pain medications, and using medications that make the urine less acidic.
People with smaller stones may be able to go home and wait for the stone or stones to pass. People with larger or more severe stones may need to stay in the hospital.
Stones that are too large to pass or that become stuck in the urinary tract may require surgery. Surgery to remove the stones may also be necessary if an infection has developed around it.
Can Too Much Magnesium Cause Kidney Stones
Some stones stay in the kidney, and do not cause any problems. Sometimes, the kidney stone can travel down the ureter, the tube between the kidney and the bladder.
Magnesium ammonium phosphate stones form in alkaline urine.
This is because too much salt is passing into the urine, keeping calcium from.
Kidney stones form when the urine becomes too concentrated either from too much bad stuff in your diet or not enough.
Other causes of abnormally low blood calcium concentrations include chronic kidney.
Magnesium deficiency can impair parathyroid hormone secretion by the.
Most kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.
could increase the likelihood of abnormal heart rhythms in people taking.
Kidney stones form when the urine becomes too concentratedeither from too much bad stuff in your diet or not enough.
But researchers also said that people taking calcium under a doctor’s advice.
is true: People can help lower their risk of kidney stone recurrences by.
to higher odds of passing a large stone that causes painful symptoms.
They identified 6050 patients with a history of kidney stones by.
“While taking supplemental calcium has associated positive effects,
to kidney stone formation, a common urinary condition that can cause excruciating pain.
There are different types of kidney stones.
stones contain the mineral magnesium and the waste product ammonia. It may form after an infection in the urinary tract. Uric acid stones. Uric acid.
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Not All Stones Are Created Equal
In addition to calcium oxalate stones, another common type of kidney stones is uric acid stones. Red meat, organ meats, and shellfish have high concentrations of a natural chemical compound known as purines. “High purine intake leads to a higher production of uric acid and produces a larger acid load for the kidneys to excrete,” said Dr. Jhagroo. Higher uric acid excretion leads to lower overall urine pH, which means the urine is more acidic. The high acid concentration of the urine makes it easier for uric acid stones to form.
To prevent uric acid stones, cut down on high-purine foods such as red meat, organ meats, and shellfish, and follow a healthy diet that contains mostly vegetables and fruits, whole grains, and low fat dairy products. Limit sugar-sweetened foods and drinks, especially those that contain high fructose corn syrup. Limit alcohol because it can increase uric acid levels in the blood and avoid crash diets for the same reason. Eating less animal-based protein and eating more fruits and vegetables will help decrease urine acidity and this will help reduce the chance for stone formation.
Herbs And Supplements To Use Only With Caution
According to some, but not all research, use ofvitamin C supplements can slightly raise levels of oxalate in the urine,40,41,53 which could, in turn, increase risk of kidney stones. However, large-scale observational studies have found that people who consume large amounts of vitamin C have no increased risk or even a decreased risk of kidney stone formation.42-44 Nonetheless, it seems that in certain people, high vitamin C intake can lead to a rapid increase in urinary oxalate, and in one case stones developed within a few days.45 The bottom line: People with a history of kidney stones should probably limit vitamin C supplements to about 100 mg daily.46
Some evidence hints that excessive consumption of phosphorus in the form of soft drinks might increase kidney stone risk, but study results are contradictory, and if there is an effect, it appears to be small.62-64
As noted above, regular consumption of grapefruit juice may significantly increase risk of stones.17
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Reduce Dietary Oxalate Intake
While high urine oxalate concentrations increase risk of calcium oxalate stones, and a low-oxalate diet has traditionally been recommended for preventing recurrence of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Oxalate is present in many foods, and combines with calcium to for calcium oxalate stones .
Digestive diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases, and bariatric weight loss surgery can result in increased absorption of oxalate from food, so stone formers with these histories may benefit from avoiding high-oxalate foods . Beets, okra, spinach, Swiss chard, French fries, sweet potatoes, nuts, tea, chocolate, and soy products are examples of oxalate-rich foods that may be eliminated or restricted on a low-oxalate diet . Adequate calcium intake may ameliorates risk of calcium oxalate stone formation by binding oxalate in the gut and preventing its absorption .
Animal Protein Intake And Kidney Stones
Animal protein acidifies urine, decreases urinary citrate, and raises urinary calcium and uric acid, potentially increasing risk of calcium and uric acid kidney stones .
A small randomized study in healthy individuals found that beef, chicken, and fish have similar potential to promote kidney stone formation based on their impact on urinary uric acid and urine chemistry . Overall, vegetarians have a lower risk of stone development than meat eaters; and among meat eaters, studies suggest those who consume more fruits and vegetables are less likely to form kidney stones .
The effectiveness of a diet low in animal protein, independent of other dietary changes, for preventing kidney stones has yet to be rigorously studied , but several expert sources recommend restriction of animal protein in order to reduce the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation and recurrence .
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Other Proposed Natural Treatments
If you’ve ever passed a kidney stone, you do not want to repeat the experience! The sharp and irregular stones travel down the slender tube leading from the kidney to the bladder, and from the bladder to the urethra, following the path by which urine exits the body. While tiny stones may pass unnoticed, a larger stone can induce some of the worst pain that humans experience.
Most kidney stones are composed of calcium and oxalic acid, substances present in the urine that can crystallize inside the kidneys. Although these chemicals occur in everyone’s urine, our natural biochemistry is usually able to prevent them from crystallizing. However, sometimes these protective methods fail and a stone develops. This article focuses mainly on thesecalcium oxalate stones.
Less commonly, kidney stones may be made from calcium and phosphate, from another substance called struvite or, rarely, from uric acid or cystine.
It isn’t known why some people develop kidney stones and others do not. However, once you’ve had a stone, you are fairly likely to develop another.
Low fluid intake greatly increases the risk of developing virtually all types of stones.1,2,3 For this reason, individuals at risk of developing stones are often advised to increase their fluid intake. However, while there is evidence that fluids in the form of coffee, tea, beer, and wine can decrease risk of kidney stone development, apple juice and grapefruit juice may have the opposite effect.4,5
What Causes Kidney Stones
- By Kevin R. Loughlin, MD, MBA, Contributor
Stone disease has plagued humanity since ancient times. Kidney stones have been identified in Egyptian mummies. The Hippocratic oath describes their treatment: I will not use the knife, not even verily, on sufferers from stone, but I will give place to such as are craftsmen therein.
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What Is The Scientific Evidence For Citrate
One form of citrate supplement, potassium citrate, was approved by the FDA in 1985 for the prevention of two kinds of kidney stones: calcium stones and uric acid stones.
In a 3-year,double-blind study of 57 people with a history of calcium stones and low urinary citrate levels, those given potassium citrate developed fewer kidney stones than they had previously. In comparison, the group givenplacebo had no change in their rate of stone formation.12
Potassium-magnesium citrate was studied in a 3-year trial involving 64 participants with a history of calcium oxalate stones.13 During the study, new stones formed in only 12.9% of those taking the potassium-magnesium citrate supplement, compared to 63.6% of those taking placebo. Benefits have been seen in other small studies as well.56,60
Citrate is available in the form of calcium citrate. Besides increasing citrate in the urine, this supplement has the advantage of being a readily absorbed form of calcium for those seeking to increase their calcium intake for other health reasons.14 However, calcium citrate has not yet been studied as a preventive for kidney stones.
It was first thought that citrate supplements were only helpful against kidney stones in individuals who didn’t excrete the normal amount of citrate in their urine.18 However, some researchers now suggest that citrate treatment may also be useful for those at risk for stones whose citrate excretion is normal.19
Is It Safe To Take Magnesium If I Have Kidney Problems
Whenever I do one of;my Internet Radio Shows on calcification, I receive dozens of emails specifically focused on kidney disease and magnesium. Whether writers have kidney stones or decreased kidney function as a side effect from diabetes, they all ask the same question, Is it safe for someone like me, with kidney problems, to take magnesium? Its a good question, because many doctors advise against supplementing with magnesium.
Ive written and recorded on this subject many times in the past. But since this is a matter of concern for many of you, I thought I would extend the information I shared in my post,;I Have Kidney Disease. Can I Use Magnesium. So, for some of you, this information will be new. For others, it will reinforce what you have already read and heard.
So, lets answer the question, Is it safe for someone like me, with kidney problems, to take magnesium? I thought it might be fun and educational for you to listen to my response to this question at time stamp 10:40 of the YouTube,;Clearing it up with Dr. Dean:
Since I mention my book excerpt and articles in this video, I believe it would help you decide what is best for you, if I include, in its entirety, the Kidney Disease Excerpt from;The Magnesium Miracle .
Kidney Disease Excerpt from;The Magnesium Miracle
KIDNEYS NEED MAGNESIUM
Top ten drugs that cause kidney damage:
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Balance Your Fat Soluble Vitamins
This would be my top priority for any patient suffering from kidney stones, specifically calcium-oxalate stones. As many of Chriss readers know, we require more than just vitamin D to properly metabolize calcium in our diets and in our blood, yet unfortunately, most nephrologists and dietitians never consider the role other fat soluble vitamins play in calcium metabolism. But vitamin A and vitamin K2 are two nutrients that are critical for balancing out the effects of vitamin D and making sure the calcium from our diet gets deposited into our bones and not into our arteries.
In someone with kidney stones, vitamin A deficiency, vitamin K2 deficiency, and vitamin D excess are all prime suspects to be considered in terms of both absolute amounts and proportions between the vitamins. Chris Masterjohn, PhD has written volumes about the importance of balancing these three nutrients, and especially balancing vitamin A with vitamin D, as an excess of one will lead to a deficiency of the other. In fact, vitamin D excess is considered to be a risk factor for kidney stones in the conventional medical world, and studies show that people exposed to high levels of sunlight are at higher risk for stones.;;Interestingly enough, adequate vitamin A intake protects against excess vitamin D, as Masterjohn has made clear in his series on the topic.
Green Tea And Catechins
Green tea and green tea extracts, which are rich in phytochemicals called catechins, have been shown to inhibit calcium oxalate stone formation . In an animal study, the flavonoids catechin and epicatechin were evaluated for their ability to modulate kidney stone biochemical risk factors. Compared with rats given no treatment, those that received catechin or epicatechin had lower kidney calcium and fewer crystals deposited in the kidneys. The authors of the study suggested the flavonoids may have protected the interior of the kidneys from oxidative damage that could initiate stone formation .
Another study, with laboratory and rodent model components, investigated the effects of catechin on calcium oxalate-mediated kidney damage. In the laboratory setting, catechin protected kidney cells from the oxidative stress ordinarily induced by calcium oxalate. In the animal component of the study, catechin appeared to protect rats from the oxidative effects of calcium oxalate .
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Talk To Your Doctor About Preventative Medications
If youre prone to certain types of kidney stones, certain medications can help control the amount of that material present in your urine. The type of medication prescribed will depend on the type of stones you usually get.
- If you get calcium stones, a thiazide diuretic or phosphate may be beneficial.
- If you get uric acid stones, allopurinol can help reduce uric acid in your blood or urine.
- If you get struvite stones, long-term antibiotics may be used to help reduce the amount of bacteria present in your urine
- If you get cystine stones, capoten may help reduce the level of cystine in your urine