Medication For Kidney Stones
For most people with recurrent calcium stones, a combination of drinking enough fluids, avoiding urinary infections, and specific treatment with medications will significantly reduce or stop new stone formation.
Certain medications such as thiazide diuretics or indapamide reduce calcium excretion and decrease the chance of another calcium stone. Potassium citrate or citric juices are used to supplement thiazide treatment and are used by themselves for some conditions where the urine is too acidic.
For people who have a high level of uric acid in their urine, or who make uric acid stones, the medication allopurinol will usually stop the formation of new stones.
Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
Most patients with kidney stones, even those with multiple recurrences, are unaware of the availability of 24-hour urine testing and the potential benefits of preventive measures based on this testing. Successful kidney stone preventive programs require high levels of patient compliance, motivation, and discipline for their efficacy. an interprofessional team of nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and physicians should educate patients about preventive therapy, but only those who are strongly motivated are likely to have long-term success. The health care team involved in the care of nephrolithiasis patients has an absolute obligation to inform patients of the existence of such programs, particularly in cases of multiple stone recurrences, solitary kidneys, high surgical risk factors, or those in the pediatric age group.
Clinicians looking after patients with renal calculi should educate them about the importance of hydration failing to do so will mean low effectiveness of medical therapy. Patients with recurrent renal calculi should be referred to a specialist for work up to rule out an anatomical or metabolic problem. Only through open communication between the team members can the morbidity of renal calculi be lowered.
Causes Of Kidney Stones
Possible causes include drinking too little water, exercise , obesity, weight loss surgery, or eating food with too much salt or sugar. Infections and family history might be important in some people. Eating too much fructose correlates with increasing risk of developing a kidney stone. Fructose can be found in table sugar and high fructose corn syrup.
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Avoiding Recurrence Of Kidney Stones
If you have had one kidney stone, some tips that may help to prevent a second stone forming include:
- Talk to your doctor about the cause of the previous stone.
- Ask your doctor to check whether the medications you are on could be causing your stones. Do not stop your medications without talking to your doctor.
- Get quick and proper treatment of urinary infections.
- Avoid dehydration. Drink enough fluids to keep your urine volume at or above two litres a day. This can halve your risk of getting a second stone by lowering the concentration of stone-forming chemicals in your urine.
- Avoid drinking too much tea or coffee. Juices may reduce the risk of some stones, particularly orange, grapefruit and cranberry. Ask your doctor for advice.
- Reduce your salt intake to lower the risk of calcium-containing stones. Dont add salt while cooking and leave the saltshaker off the table. Choose low- or no-salt processed foods.
- Avoid drinking more than one litre per week of drinks that contain phosphoric acid, which is used to flavour carbonated drinks such as cola and beer.
- Always talk to your doctor before making changes to your diet.
Drinking mineral water is fine it cannot cause kidney stones because it contains only trace elements of minerals.
Things You Probably Dont Know About Blood Tests
To determine the cause of blood in urine, your doctor will usually begin by discussing your medical history with you. They may ask if youve had any recent infections or have a family history of hematuria. You can prepare for your appointment by making a few notes about the color and odor of your urine, as well as how frequently youve been urinating and whether you experience any pain while urinating. You may want to take a photo of your discolored urine on your mobile phone that you can show to your doctor during your appointment.
Your doctor may also perform a number of tests. A urinalysis can detect microscopic hematuria and also test for a urinary tract infection or kidney stones. If a urinalysis does not determine the cause, your doctor may also perform a CT scan, an MRI, or an ultrasound. They may also want to examine the bladder and urethra via cystoscopy, where a tube with a camera attached is inserted into your bladder. Additional tests may include:
- Antinuclear antibody test
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Hematuria: Blood In The Urine
Blood in the urine should never be ignored. This could be the first sign of a serious condition. In order to help your doctor with the correct diagnosis, you may try to provide details such as:
- Was it associated with pain?
- Did you see blood clots?
- What shape did the clots have?
- The color of the blood
- At what time during urination did you see blood in the urine ?
Blood in the urine can present in one of two ways:
- Gross hematuria
Both types can have serious causes.
Are Home Remedies Effective For Kidney Stones
For some people who have had many kidney stones, home care may be appropriate. When passing a kidney stone, drinking lots of fluid is important. In fact, this is the most important home care measure. Medications may help control the pain . However, if it is the first time one has had symptoms suggestive of a kidney stone, it is important to see a doctor right away.
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Pressure Or Pain In The Lower Back
In some cases, a stone may become stuck in the ureter. The ureter is the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. A blockage here causes urine to back up in the kidney, resulting in pressure and pain sensations in the lower back. These symptoms may occur on the left or right side, depending on which kidney is affected.
According to the University of Chicago, pain or pressure are usually the first signs of a kidney stone. In some cases, the symptoms may be very subtle and build up slowly. In other cases, they may come on suddenly, with no early warning signs. This pain can be severe and may lead to nausea or vomiting, or both. People often experience sharp, stabbing pain, and common measures such as rest or lying down do not relieve it.
How Serious Is Hematuria
Though you may understandably be alarmed to see blood in your urine , dont panic the underlying cause is often easily treatable. It may be the symptom of a urinary tract infection .
Further, not all urinary discoloration results from blood in your urinary tract. Women who are menstruating may see blood in their urine, certain medications can cause blood to show up in your urine, and some foods, including beets, can cause you to pass pink or red urine after eating them.
Hematuria may indicate a serious disorder, and its best you report any cases of urinary discoloration to your doctor. Older patients and smokers are more likely to have blood in their urine, and smokers are at greater risk for genitourinary cancer. This can include cancers of the kidney, bladder, prostate, testicles or penis.
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How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will discuss your medical history and possibly order some tests. These tests include:
- Imaging tests: An X-ray, CT scan and ultrasound will help your healthcare provider see the size, shape, location and number of your kidney stones. These tests help your provider decide what treatment you need.
- Blood test: A blood test will reveal how well your kidneys are functioning, check for infection and look for biochemical problems that may lead to kidney stones.
- Urine test: This test also looks for signs of infection and examines the levels of the substances that form kidney stones.
What Are The Treatments For Kidney Stones
The treatment for a kidney stone depends on the size of the stone, what it is made of, whether it is causing pain and whether it is blocking your urinary tract. To answer these questions and to figure out the right treatment for you, your doctor might ask you to have a urine test, blood test, x-ray and/or CT scan. A CT scan sometimes uses contrast dye. If you have ever had a problem with contrast dye, be sure to tell your doctor about it before you have your CT scan.
If your test results show that your kidney stone is small, your doctor may tell you to take pain medicine and drink plenty of fluids to help push the stone through your urinary tract. If your kidney stone is large, or if it is blocking your urinary tract, additional treatment may be necessary.
One treatment option is shock wave lithotripsy. This treatment uses shock waves to break up the kidney stones into small pieces. After the treatment, the small pieces of the kidney stone will pass through your urinary tract and out of your body with your urine. This treatment usually takes 45 minutes to one hour and may be done under general anesthesia, which means you will be asleep and unable to feel pain.
In rare cases, a surgery called percutaneous nephrolithotomy is needed to remove a kidney stone. During the surgery, a tube will be inserted directly into your kidney to remove the stone. You will need to be in the hospital for two to three days to have and recover from this treatment.
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Why Is There Blood In My Childs Urine
Both visible and microscopic blood in the urine of children can be a sign of a medical condition or risk of developing a medical condition.
If a red, pink, or brown color is visible, the change is likely due to medication or eating certain foods. Regardless, parents should consult a doctor if they notice any abnormal color changes in their childs urine.
According to the Cincinnati Childrens Hospital, roughly 3 percent to 4 percent of children will experience microscopic blood in their urine. Because microscopic blood isnt visible, parents should also look for these signs:
- Puffiness around the eyes
- Swelling of hands and feet
- Abdominal or groin pain
- Sickle cell disease
- Kidney cysts
Its also possible that your child has benign familial hematuria, which could mean that there is nothing medically wrong with your child.
Signs Of Bladder Stones
While bladder stones can cause blood in the urine, they often trigger additional symptoms, such as:
- Frequent or painful urination
- Cloudy, dark, or abnormally colored urine
- Pain or pressure in the abdomen
- Difficulty urinating
- A urine stream that starts and stops
- Pain or discomfort in the penis
Its also possible to experience urinary tract infection symptoms with bladder stones, like the urge to urinate frequently, discomfort while passing urine, and fever.
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Are There Any Foods Or Drinks That Help Treat Kidney Stones Are There Any Home Remedies
There are three liquids rumored to help with kidney stones:
- Cranberry juice. Although cranberry juice can help prevent urinary tract infections , it doesnt help with kidney stones.
- Apple cider vinegar. Vinegar is acidic and it can sometimes create changes to your urine, which helps with kidney stones. But, this doesnt always help. Talk to your healthcare provider about the use of vinegar.
- Lemon juice. Lemon juice is rich in citrate, which can help prevent kidney stones from forming. Citrates are found in several citrus fruits including lemons, limes, oranges and melons.
- Coffee. Studies show that coffee may decrease your risk of developing kidney stones.
Avoid soda and other drinks with added sugar or fructose corn syrup. They increase your risk.
Tumours In The Bladder Or Kidney
The most common early sign of bladder cancer or kidney cancer is blood in the urine, usually without any other symptoms. However, the vast majority of people who have blood in their urine do not have cancer.
The outlook for people with bladder and kidney cancer is better the earlier it is diagnosed. It is therefore very important that certain people have tests to look for bladder cancer if they have blood in their urine. For example, a person aged over 45 years with no infection causing blood in their urine would be referred for tests. These may include an ultrasound scan or a procedure where a small thin telescope is passed into your bladder .
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Treatment For Kidney Stones
Most kidney stones can be treated without surgery. Ninety per cent of stones pass by themselves within three to six weeks. In this situation, the only treatment required is pain relief. However, pain can be so severe that hospital admission and very strong pain-relieving medication may be needed. Always seek immediate medical attention if you are suffering strong pain.
Small stones in the kidney do not usually cause problems, so there is often no need to remove them. A doctor specialising in the treatment of kidney stones is the best person to advise you on treatment.
If a stone doesnt pass and blocks urine flow or causes bleeding or an infection, then it may need to be removed. New surgical techniques have reduced hospital stay time to as little as 48 hours. Treatments include:
Why Do I See Blood In Urine
Finding blood in the urine can be stressful and make you concerned about what to do next. In this situation, a sense of fear can be eventually instilled in you, we advise you to not get panicked and to proceed calmly as they are not signs of any life-threatening problem. Usually, healthy urine should not have any noticeable amounts of blood. And its important to know whether it is blood in the first place.
Occasionally and naturally, the color of urine will turn red or dark brown due to the over-consuming of beetroot and food dye. This condition is completely casual because the color reverts to normal as the food exists from the digestive system. And, women are advised to be more specific in knowing the blood is coming from the urine and not as vaginal bleeding or rectum.
The STDs that most commonly cause blood in the urine are Chlamydia and Gonorrhea. The following are some reasons to know what does blood in urine means.
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Can Dehydration Cause Blood In Urine
While dehydration is less likely to be a direct cause of blood in the urine, it can lead to conditions that can cause hematuria. For example, low urine volume due to consistent dehydration can lead to kidney stones that can cause blood in urine. Dehydration may also be a contributor when extreme exercise causes blood in the urine.
How Common Are Kidney Stones
Each year, more than half a million people go to emergency rooms for kidney stone problems. It is estimated that one in ten people will have a kidney stone at some time in their lives.
The prevalence of kidney stones in the United States increased from 3.8% in the late 1970s to 8.8% in the late 2000s. The prevalence of kidney stones was 10% during 20132014. The risk of kidney stones is about 11% in men and 9% in women. Other diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity may increase the risk for kidney stones.
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What Treatment Options Are There
Treatment depends on what is causing the hematuria. Often times, no treatment is needed. Infections are treated with antibiotics. If there is a high level of calcium in the urine, diet changes may be recommended such as low salt in food and drinking more water. Sometimes, medication may also be prescribed to help lower calcium levels in the urine.
In patients with glomerulonephritis, treatment includes medications such as steroids or other stronger medications that decrease inflammation in the kidney. In some children, medication is also given to control high blood pressure.
Kidney stones do not always require treatment, but may need to be removed if they are causing pain or infections. If your child is forming kidney stones, they may need additional urine and/or blood testing to help prevent future stones.
In about 1 out of 4 cases, doctors may not be able to find the cause for the hematuria. If all tests are normal and blood remains in the urine, yearly checkups are recommended to make sure the patient does not begin to develop kidney disease.
Can Kidney Stones Be Prevented
Rather than having to undergo treatment, it is best to avoid kidney stones in the first place when possible. It can be especially helpful to drink more water since low fluid intake and dehydration are major risk factors for kidney stone formation.
Depending on the cause of the kidney stones and an individual’s medical history, changes in the diet or medications are sometimes recommended to decrease the likelihood of developing further kidney stones. If one has passed a stone, it can be particularly helpful to have it analyzed in a laboratory to determine the precise type of stone so specific prevention measures can be considered.
People who have a tendency to form calcium oxalate kidney stones may be advised to limit their consumption of foods high in oxalates, such as spinach, rhubarb, Swiss chard, beets, wheat germ, and peanuts. Also drinking lemon juice or lemonade may be helpful in preventing kidney stones.
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