Vitamins That Can Damage Your Kidneys If Overdosed
Your kidneys regulate the daily balance between your intake of water and salt.
Getting sufficient nutrients from a healthy diet can help you improve kidney function, but you dont typically need vitamin supplements for this purpose, according to a March 2014 review in Sports Medicine.
In fact, overloading your body with vitamins can damage your kidneys. Speak with your health care provider before using dietary supplements.
Medications For High Blood Pressure
One of the main ways to reduce the progression of kidney damage is to manage high blood pressure. Good control of blood pressure is vital to protect the kidneys.
People with CKD should aim to get their blood pressure down to below 140/90mmHg but if you also have diabetes you should aim to get it down to below 130/80mmHg.
There are many types of blood pressure drugs. Medicines called angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are used to control high blood pressure in people with CKD.
As well as reducing blood pressure around the body and reducing the strain on blood vessels, ACE inhibitors give additional protection to the kidney.
ACE inhibitors include:
Side effects of ACE inhibitors include:
- a persistent, dry cough
- tiredness or weakness
Most of these side effects should pass within a few days, although some people continue to have a dry cough.
If the side effects of ACE inhibitors are particularly troublesome, you can be given an alternative medication called an angiotensin-II receptor blocker . This group of medicines includes:
The side effects of ARBs are uncommon, but can include dizziness.
Iron And Cardiovascular Risk
In vitro experiments have demonstrated that iron treatment results in a dose-dependent increase in the expression of adhesion molecules in human aortic endothelial cells, accompanied by enhanced mononuclear cell adhesion to the endothelial cells . In 5/6 nephrectomized rats, intravenous iron induced oxidative stress in cardiovascular tissues . A recent experimental study has furthered our understanding of how iron is involved in atherogenesis in CKD . By conducting both in vitro and in vivo experiments, Kuo et al. demonstrated that iron treatment increased mononuclear-endothelial cell adhesion through NADPH oxidase/NF-/cell-adhesion molecule signaling, thus exacerbating atherosclerosis. These results are in line with previous observations that cumulative iron doses are positively related to carotid intima media thickness in hemodialysis patients . Recent observational studies have also demonstrated that intravenous iron administration of 50 mg per week or > 800 mg within 6 months is associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it should be noted that, as these studies were observational, causality could not be shown because of the remaining confounding factors. In contrast, another observational study of hemodialysis patients in the United States found an association between intravenous iron treatment and significantly better survival .
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When Is It Ordered
Creatinine may be ordered during a routine health exam. It may also be ordered when your healthcare practitioner suspects that your kidneys are not working properly due to your signs and symptoms. Some signs and symptoms of kidney dysfunction include:
- Fatigue, lack of concentration, poor appetite, or trouble sleeping
- Swelling or puffiness, particularly around the eyes or in the face, wrists, abdomen, thighs or ankles
- Urine that is foamy, bloody, or coffee-colored
- A decrease in the amount of urine
- Problems urinating, such as a burning feeling or abnormal discharge during urination, or a change in the frequency of urination, especially at night
- Mid-back pain , below the ribs, near where the kidneys are located
- High blood pressure
Both BUN and creatinine may be ordered when a CT scan is planned, prior to and during certain drug therapies, and before and after dialysis to monitor the effectiveness of treatments.
What Can I Do To Help Manage My Anaemia
Changes to diet can sometimes help to prevent anaemia, but you should talk to your doctor or dietitian before making changes. The Renal Nutrition Group does not recommend a high iron diet for patients with CKD.
It is important to follow the treatment recommended by your doctor. You should store ESA injections or iron as recommended by the manufacturer – some products need to be stored in the fridge for example.
You should let your doctor or nurse know immediately if you notice any bleeding or if you experience symptoms of anaemia.
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Purine Restriction In People At Risk For Uric Acid Stones
A high intake of purines can increase the amount of uric acid in the urine. Those at risk for uric acid stones should reduce their intake of foods and beverages that contain purines.
Some diet and lifestyle changes that may help prevent uric acid stones:
- Avoid alcohol, anchovies, sardines, oils, herring, organ meat , legumes , gravies, mushrooms, spinach, asparagus, cauliflower, and baking or brewer’s yeast.
- Limit how much meat you eat at each meal.
- Avoid fatty foods such as salad dressings, ice cream, and fried foods.
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HOW TO TAKE SUPPLEMENTS CORRECTLY
If you find your medicine cabinet filled with bottles youve lost track of, it may be time to review your supplementary routine. CNA Lifestyle spoke to the nutrition experts, who addressed some common but inaccurately held notions about taking supplements.
FALLACY #1: WHEN IN DOUBT, JUST GO FOR MULTIVITAMINS TO COVER ALL GROUNDS
We hate to break it to you but you may be better off eating proper meals instead. Multivitamins usually contain small amounts of vitamins and nutritional elements, but these can usually be obtained from a healthy diet, said Zoe Kong, principal pharmacist with the Department of Pharmacy at National University Hospital.
Moreover, supplements are necessary only when one has a proven medical deficiency from blood test results, said Patsy Soh, a dietitian with Mindful Nutrition. Or individuals who are lactose intolerant and cant take dairy products can benefit from a calcium pill.
Furthermore, there can be serious implications from taking multivitamins, said Kong. Taking multivitamins can be dangerous if youre on certain prescription drugs such as the blood-thinning warfarin as multivitamins with a high Vitamin K content can block the effect of the drug, she said.
Patients taking certain medications such as isotreinoin and acitretin, or who are pregnant, should also avoid taking multivitamins containing Vitamin A without consulting their healthcare provider.
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What Is The Outlook With Hemochromatosis
The outlook for hemochromatosis depends on the timing of diagnosis and treatment. If not caught and addressed early, severe hemochromatosis can cause serious problems. These complications can include organ damage and possible death.
But hemochromatosis is also a manageable disease. With early detection and treatment, you can survive and live a normal, healthy life. Sometimes organ damage can even be reversed.
How Is Anemia Treated
Getting your anemia treated can help you feel better. Depending on the cause of your anemia, your doctor may recommend one of the following treatments:
- Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents ESAs are injectable medicines that work by sending a signal to the your body to make more red blood cells.
- Iron supplementation Your doctor may give you iron supplements as pills or as a shot. If you are on dialysis, you may be given an iron supplement during your dialysis treatment.
- Red blood cell transfusion A red blood cell transfusion is a procedure to increase the number of red blood cells in your body by giving you red blood cells from someone else’s body through an IV. This can temporarily improve your anemia symptoms.
Doctors and researchers are working on potential new treatments for anemia. New treatments in development are tested in clinical trials. If you’re interested in joining a clinical trial to try an investigational new treatment for anemia, visit ClinicalTrials.gov to learn about all available clinical trials for anemia.
If you have CKD, getting early treatment for your anemia can help slow the progress of your CKD. If you think you might have anemia, talk to your doctor about getting tested.
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Is Too Much Of A Multivitamin A Bad Thing
Patients should consult with their physician or pharmacist before taking any vitamins.
Healthy individuals can easily get enough vitamin C through diet alone. In fact, based on a 2000-calorie diet for healthy adults, half of one 2.5-oz package of Kelloggs Fruity Snacks provides 100% daily value of vitamin C. If you ate the entire package, it would provide 200% DV.
Is there a ramification for overdosing on vitamins like this?
If a patient is deficient in vitamins or minerals, diet-based solutions should be recommended first because they can provide many bioactive compounds and dietary fiber not found in supplements. If a patient isnt deficient in vitamins or minerals, theres insufficient data to suggest benefit from taking more than the daily recommended allowance of certain vitamin or mineral supplements.1
Vitamin C, vitamin B12, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, tryptophan, pantothenic acid, biotin, and folic acid are all water-soluble vitamins and nutrients. Although the body adapts by absorbing only what it needs and excretes the excess in the urine, excretion decreases when study participants fast.2
Even though they arent stored in the body, water-soluble nutrients cant be presumed safe. In fact, too much vitamin B6 can cause nerve problems, too much vitamin C can cause kidney stones, and too much folic acid may mask vitamin B12 deficiency.2
How multivitamin overdose affects different parts of the body is displayed here3:
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Diet And Nutrition For People With Chronic Kidney Disease
Its important to eat a healthy diet if you have been diagnosed with chronic kidney disease as many foods can harm your kidneys. For example, red meat is very harsh on your kidneys so you will want to minimize or remove it from your diet. Due to red meat containing high amounts of iron, though, you will need to look for plant-based sources of iron to compensate and avoid anemia, such as kale or spinach.
Here are some other tips for diet and nutrition to keep in mind if you have chronic kidney disease.
- Prepare and choose foods with reduced salt.
- Consume the right protein as mentioned, red meat can be harmful, so stick with fish, eggs, chicken and plant-based proteins instead.
- Choose heart-healthy foods like beans, whole grains, fruits and vegetables.
- Choose foods with less phosphorus, such as fruits, vegetables and rice products, and avoid items like dairy and soda.
- Choose foods with a good amount of potassium, such as apples, carrots and white rice foods like bananas have too much potassium.
- Drink plenty of water.
- Cut out sugary drinks like soda or juice.
- Drink alcohol in small amounts and sparingly.
Following these tips can help you with your chronic kidney disease and still provide you with food options that contain iron to reduce your risk of anemia.
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Complementary And Alternative Therapies
Kidney stones require conventional medical attention. DO NOT treat kidney stones with alternative therapies. Alternative therapies may help aid in reducing the risk of recurrent episodes and increasing the overall vitality of the urogenital system. Start with nutritional guidelines for prevention of recurrence. Herbs and homeopathic remedies can be used for acute pain relief and long-term toning of the urinary tract if used under the guidance of a knowledgeable health care provider. Always tell your doctor about the herbs and supplements you are taking.
If I Have Kidney Failure What Is The Treatment For Low Iron
There are several methods for treating low iron in people with kidney failure, but not all are available for everyone on dialysis. You and your healthcare professional will decide which method is best for you. You can:
- Take extra iron by mouth in tablet or liquid form.
- Get iron injected into a vein at the healthcare professional’s office .
- Receive an injection of iron into the blood tubes during hemodialysis treatments.
- Have iron added to the dialysate during hemodialysis treatments .
Most people on dialysis need extra iron because:
- Your diet may lack iron rich-rich foods. Foods that are rich in iron, like red meats and beans, may be limited in your dialysis diet. Without enough iron-rich foods, you are more at risk for low iron. A dietitian can help you choose foods that are good sources of iron, vitamins, and other minerals. Check with your dietitian before making any changes in your diet.
- You lose a little blood during hemodialysis treatments. At the end of each hemodialysis treatment, a small amount of blood is usually left behind in the dialyzer . This can be a source of iron loss over time. However, if your healthcare provider finds that you are a good candidate for dialysate iron, you may be given this treatment during your dialysis to replenish this loss of iron during treatment.
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What To Expect At Your Doctor’s Office
If you are in extreme pain, your health care provider may give you a strong pain reliever. Your provider will need a urine sample to check for infection and to see if your urine is acidic or alkaline, which indicates the type of stone you have. You may need to collect your urine for 24 hours if this is not your first stone. Your provider will also take a blood sample and may request additional tests to confirm the diagnosis, such as a computed tomography scan , ultrasound, or x-rays.
With time, the stone generally passes out of the body by itself. If it doesn’t pass, or if you have severe pain, bleeding, fever, nausea, or can’t urinate, your provider can shatter the stone with shock waves , and the smaller pieces can pass with much less pain. In rare cases, surgery may be required.
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Diagnosis: Too Much Calcium In The Urine
These drugs help to decrease urine calcium excretion. They also help to keep calcium in the bones, reducing the risk for osteoporosis. The most common side effect of thiazide diuretics is potassium loss, so in many cases your doctor will prescribe a potassium supplement to go along with the thiazide diuretic.
Lower sodium intake
The human body carefully regulates its sodium levels. When excess sodium is excreted in the urine, calcium is also excreted proportionally. In other words, the more sodium you consume, the more calcium that will be in your urine. Your goal should be to reduce your sodium intake so that you consume less than 2 grams of sodium per day. Watch out for silent sources of salt, such as fast foods, packaged or canned foods, softened water and sports drinks.
Normal calcium diet
People who form stones sometimes think that because there is too much calcium in their urine, they should restrict their calcium intake. There is no research that supports this practice. Your body needs dietary calcium to support the skeleton. You should be encouraged to consume two servings of dairy or other calcium-rich foods to maintain bone stores of calcium.
Increase fluid intake
No matter what your diagnosis, you should drink enough water to produce at least 2 liters of urine per day.
Avoid Iron Supplements If You Have These Conditions
If you have any of the following conditions, avoid iron supplements as they may increase your risk of iron toxicity.
Hemochromatosis is a genetically inherited disease that can cause iron to accumulate to toxic levels in the body. Without treatment, this disease can lead to problems like liver cancer, liver cirrhosis, and heart disease. People with this condition should not use iron supplements or vitamin C supplements, which increase iron absorption.
African Iron Overload
First observed among the people of African descent, this is a rare condition caused due to the high intake of dietary iron. The condition is believed to result from the consumption of a traditional African beer, which contains dissolved iron from metal drums in which it is brewed. People with this condition should avoid taking iron supplements.
The excess iron accumulates in the immune cells in the bone marrow and spleen and compromises the infection-fighting ability of the immune system. As the condition progresses, iron also accumulates in the liver cells, causing toxicity, liver disease, and even cancer.12
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Question: Does Creatine Cause Kidney Stones
Years ago, I had occurrences of kidney stones made specifically of calcium oxalate. I have read warnings against creatine for those with kidney disease. Kidney stones are not usually called kidney disease. I am considering using creatine, but I am not sure if it would cause a problem. Are there any reports of increased kidney stone activity in users of the creatine supplement?
Treatment Of Anemia In Chronic Kidney Disease
There are a few different ways to treat anemia in chronic kidney disease, including iron supplementation, erythropoietin, red blood cell transfusion and vitamin B12 and folic acid supplements.
Iron: Iron pills can be an effective first step in treating anemia in chronic kidney disease patients. If levels are severely low, iron may be administered intravenously as well.
Erythropoietin: If kidney disease is the cause of anemia which can be confirmed through blood work doctors can use injections to increase EPO. Although injections may aid in kidney function and help treat anemia, they have been linked to cardiovascular events.
Red blood cell transfusion: If red blood cells fall too low, a doctor may prescribe red blood cell transfusion in order to raise red blood cell counts and increase oxygen.
Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplements: Low levels of vitamin B12 as well as folic acid can be contributing factors for anemia, so a doctor may check levels and prescribe supplementation if levels are low.
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