What Are Vitamins And Minerals
Vitamins and minerals are key factors that our bodies use to make energy, promote growth and repair body tissues . Vitamins and minerals are found in the food we eat, so the best way to get them is by eating a well-balanced, nutrient-dense diet. For many chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients, achieving adequate nutrient intake by diet alone may be difficult and trying to figure out what to eat may be a challenge.
A Clinical Perspective Of Modifying Magnesium Balance
As CPP formation mainly depends on Ca2+, Pi and fetuin-A concentrations, CPP may explain Pi-stimulated vascular calcification in CKD and thus mediate Pi-induced VSMC calcification. Consequently these pathological effects of Pi may be reduced by preventing CPP2 formation by Mg2+. Indeed, many experimental vascular calcification inhibitors were shown to delay CPP2 maturation . The introduction of the calcification propensity test , which measures the transition time from CPP1 to CPP2 ex vivo in serum samples, has created an opportunity to quantify the mineral-buffering capacity of CKD patients to withstand vascular calcification . A higher calcification propensity is associated with mortality and the presence and severity of vascular calcification in patients with CKD . Factors reducing calcification propensity are of interest as potential treatment options for progressive vascular calcification.
T50 as a measure of calcification propensity and effects of magnesium. The formation of colloidal CPP1 is caused by an imbalance between blood Pi concentrations and calcification inhibitors. The transition time from CPP1 to CPP2, referred to as T50, can be monitored by time-resolved nephelometry and is a measure for the mineral-buffering system of the serum and the calcification propensity. Mg2+ increments of 0.2 mmol/L delay the transition from CPP1 to CPP2, increases T50 and therefore reduces calcification propensity in the serum of CKD patients .
Prevalence Of Kidney Disease
Overall, the prevalence of kidney disease in the U.S. is about 14%. More women than men contract this condition. This rate increased greatly in the 1980s and 1990s, then leveled off in the early 2000s. It reached a peak in 2006, then slowly began declining.
African Americans have a 3.7 times greater prevalence than Caucasians of contracting kidney disease, while Native Americans have a 1.4 times greater prevalence, and Asian Americans have a 1.5 times greater prevalence than Caucasians.
Kidney disease is called a silent disease because it may have no symptoms in the early stages and thus not be accurately assessed until its advanced. Possibly because of this, kidney disease kills more people than breast or prostate cancer.
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Potatoes And Sweet Potatoes
Potatoes and sweet potatoes are potassium-rich vegetables.
Just one medium-sized baked potato contains 610 mg of potassium, whereas one average-sized baked sweet potato contains 541 mg of potassium .
Fortunately, some high potassium foods, including potatoes and sweet potatoes, can be soaked or leached to reduce their potassium contents.
Cutting potatoes into small, thin pieces and boiling them for at least 10 minutes can reduce the potassium content by about 50% .
Potatoes that are soaked in water for at least 4 hours before cooking are proven to have an even lower potassium content than those not soaked before cooking .
This method is known as potassium leaching or the double-cook method.
Although double cooking potatoes lowers the potassium content, its important to remember that their potassium content isnt eliminated by this method.
Considerable amounts of potassium can still be present in double-cooked potatoes, so its best to practice portion control to keep potassium levels in check.
Potatoes and sweet potatoes are high potassium vegetables. Boiling or double cooking potatoes can decrease their potassium content by about 50%.
Tomatoes are another high potassium fruit that may not fit the guidelines of a renal diet.
They can be served raw or stewed and are often used to make sauces.
Just 1 cup of tomato sauce can contain upwards of 900 mg of potassium .
Unfortunately for those on a renal diet, tomatoes are commonly used in many dishes.
Feeling Faint Dizzy Or Weak
Why this happens:
Anemia related to kidney failure means that your brain is not getting enough oxygen. This can lead to feeling faint, dizzy, or weak.
What patients said:
I was always tired and dizzy.
It got to the point, like, I used to be at work, and all of the sudden I’d start getting dizzy. So I was thinking maybe it was my blood pressure or else diabetes was going bad. That’s what was on my mind.
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Function Of The Kidneys
The primary function of the kidneys is filtering the blood. Anywhere from 130 to 150 quarts of blood flow through the kidneys, yielding one or two quarts of urine. In this way, the kidneys help remove waste products, toxins, and excess liquids from the body.
They are part of the circulatory system because of the major arteries and vessels leading to the kidneys. Also, theyre part of the excretory system tasked with removing wastes from the body.
Mg And Kidney Function
Experimental and human data have been published regarding the association between serum Mg levels, the impairment of kidney function, and renal outcomes in CKD. As mentioned, the abnormal handling of Mg by the kidney may result in either hypomagnesemia or hypermagnesemia .
Experimental Data Related to Hypomagnesemia and Kidney Injury
Since the early 1990s, low-Mg diets were described to induce nephrocalcinosis and impairment of kidney function . Subsequent studies in rats showed proximal renal tubules electron-dense granules in the brush border after only 12 h of Mg-deficient diet. After 7 days, the tubular injury was settled down, as shown by calcium deposits and necrosis of the tubular epithelial .
Studies in 5/6 nephrectomized rats clearly showed that renal function was better preserved in animals on a diet supplemented with Mg as compared to rats fed a basal Mg diet . Different mechanisms could be involved, such as the reduction in intestinal absorption of phosphate mediated by an increase in the dietary intake of Mg, which is also associated with a reduction in vascular calcifications, lower systolic and diastolic BP, and an improvement in endothelial function . However, the beneficial effect of Mg on kidney function seems unlikely to be exclusively due to the reduction of intestinal absorption of phosphate because parenteral administration of Mg was able to reduce vascular calcification without a change in serum phosphate levels .
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Is Carbonated Water Bad For Stage 3 Kidney Disease
Kidney disease refers to the incapacity of the kidneys to perform the required function of filtering blood for the removal of waste. Chronic kidney disease is the undemanding loss of kidney function over a couple of months or years. The damage moderately happens in the initial stages of CKD while in the late stages, kidneys become incapable of working out some important things for you. This happens in stages according to the glomerular filtration rate that signifies how well your kidneys are eliminating toxins and unwanted. The count of GFR depicts which stage of chronic kidney disease you are in.Is carbonated water bad for stage 3 kidney disease.
Mg Transport And Homeostasis
The total amount of Mg in the body is approximately 22.6 g, and the concentration in serum ranges from 2.1 to 3.1 mg/dL. Approximately 1% of the total Mg in the body is located in the extracellular space; 60% is ionized or free, 30% is bound to proteins and 10% as phosphate, citrate, or oxalate salts , and bone is an important reservoir of Mg .
Most Mg is within the intracellular compartment, and the passage to the extracellular space is slow. It is interesting to mention that the Mg concentration in the cytosol and the extracellular space is similar; this is in contrast with other divalent anions such as calcium with an intracellular concentration approximately 20,000-fold lower than in the extracellular compartment.
Homeostasis of Mg is maintained by a controlled balance between the intestinal absorption and renal excretion with a serum concentration ranging from 1.3 to 2.7 mg/dL, although this range may vary between the different laboratories .
Daily intake of Mg is around 300 to 400 mg, and 50% is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract . Proximal renal tubules reabsorb only 15 to 25% of the filtered Mg; 6070% is reabsorbed in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, and the distal tubule reabsorbs a 5 to 10% . Hypomagnesemia is defined as serum Mg concentrations lower than 1.7 mg/dL, whereas hypermagnesemia is considered if serum Mg levels are higher than 2.5 mg/dL.
Figure 1. Potential causes of Hypomagnesemia.
Figure 2. Causes and Symptoms of Hypomagnesemia.
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Conflict Of Interest Statement
M.G.V. has received lecture fees and scientific support from Amgen, Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma, Kyowa Kirin, Medice, AbbVie and Fresenius Medical Care. He is an advisor for Amgen, Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma, Kyowa Kirin and Medice and serves on the advisory board of Otsuka. M.G.V. is also a member of the European Renal AssociationEuropean Dialysis and Transplantation Association working group on CKD-MBD and a member of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes committee on CKD-MBD. All the other authors have declared no competing interests.
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A. Magnesium is essential for muscles, nerves and bones. This mineral helps regulate blood sugar, blood pressure and heart rhythm.
The daily RDA is 420 mg for men and 320 mg for women. American diets are frequently low in magnesium, and commonly prescribed blood-pressure medicines containing diuretics may deplete this mineral.
People with kidney problems are unable to tolerate excess magnesium. They should avoid supplements, laxatives or antacids that contain this mineral. Overdosing on magnesium may overwhelm the system and result in magnesium toxicity. This may be what happened to your father-in-law because of his milk of magnesia habit.
If your wifes kidney function is normal and her physician monitors her magnesium levels, she should be able to tolerate up to 350 mg daily.
Q. My wife has been taking Lipitor for about three years. Two years ago, she began to have memory problems, and they have gotten steadily worse since then.
She has been to a neurologist, and there does not seem to be an organic cause for her memory loss. I am left wondering if Lipitor could be to blame. How long should she stay off it to see if her memory improves? Thank you for any information you can send us.
The results were amazing. In a few days, she began to feed herself again, then to play bingo. She is again quoting rhymes and is interacting with those around her in a normal way.
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How Should I Take Magnesium Citrate
Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
Take magnesium citrate on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal.
Measure liquid medicine with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.
Take this medicine with a full glass of water.
Magnesium citrate should produce a bowel movement within 30 minutes to 6 hours after you take the medicine.
Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after 7 days of treatment, or if the medicine produces no results. Not having a bowel movement after using a laxative may be a sign of a condition more serious than occasional constipation.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
The Effects Of Cinnamon
With its sweet taste, a little bit of cinnamon can act like sugar in foods and drinks. As Bazilian says, “cinnamon has a warming and slightly sweet flavor, so it may help a person reduce the sugar in their foods a little by sprinkling on or stirring in some cinnamon.”
It’s also full of antioxidants that help reduce inflammation in the body, according to an April 2014 review in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
However, ingesting large amounts of cinnamon can be toxic, even causing liver damage or worsening the condition of people with existing liver damage, cautions the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health .
Studies are mixed on whether taking cinnamon supplements helps lower blood sugar, notes Mayo Clinic. If you’re thinking about taking cinnamon supplements, talk to your doctor first, and more sure they won’t interact with any medications you may be taking.
In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, some studies demonstrate cinnamon’s bacteria-fighting properties, a September 2015 review in the journal Nutrients points out. According to the article, cinnamon has been used as a “health-promoting agent” for the treatment of urinary infections. However, cinnamon should not be used instead of medication to treat urinary infections, or any illness, says NCCIH.
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Symptoms Of Kidney Disease
Overall, the side effects felt by those with kidney disease who are taking prednisone are very similar to the symptoms of Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome . Some of these side effects include obesity, kidney stones, irregular menstruation, high blood pressure, and osteoporosis. If people with kidney disease are taking prednisone, any problems with their adrenals may not be noticed.
Even though a person with kidney disease may have no symptoms and only discover their condition through blood work, there are some symptoms that definitely point to this condition. Swelling of the legs, blood in the urine, frothy urine, and difficulty controlling high blood pressure are some of those symptoms.
Other symptoms that may present with kidney disease include:
- Itchy rashes due to a buildup of toxins in your blood.
- Side, back, or leg pain.
- Dizziness and loss of concentration can result from anemia brought on by kidney failure. This lessens the amount of blood going to your brain and a resulting lack of oxygen.
There are a set of symptoms that kidney disease and adrenal fatigue have in common. Fatigue, digestion problems, trouble with concentration, lowered sex drive, increased likelihood of catching colds and flu, and irregular menstruation are a few of these.
Fatigue Being Tired All Of The Time
Why this happens:
Healthy kidneys make a hormone called erythropoietin , or EPO, that tells your body to make oxygen-carrying red blood cells. As the kidneys fail, they make less EPO. With fewer red blood cells to carry oxygen, your muscles and brain tire very quickly. This is anemia, and it can be treated.
What patients said:
I was constantly exhausted and didn’t have any pep or anything.
I would sleep a lot. I’d come home from work and get right in that bed.
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Benefits Of Consuming Giloy For Kidney Patients
Giloy can benefit kidney patients by boosting their immunity. Giloy contains certain antioxidants which are responsible to strengthen the immune system and protect the cells of the kidneys from cellular damage.;
Giloy can also aid the body in fighting bacterial illnesses that can spread to the kidney like urinary tract infections.
Giloy also contains alkaloids that can protect the kidneys against harmful toxins. Giloy can aid the kidneys by improving the blood flow to the kidneys.;
The phytochemicals present in giloy can also help kidney patients with type 2 diabetes to manage their blood glucose levels. A study indicates that giloy can improve the release of insulin and reduce oxidative stress in the liver caused by diabetes.;
Dialysates With Higher Mg Concentrations
Dialysates with higher Mg concentrations are feasible and effective for increasing serum Mg levels. In Nilssons study including 22 HD patients who had been treated with 0.75;mmol/L-Mg dialysate, 12 were assigned to 0.2;mmol/L dialysate and 10 continued to use 0.75;mmol/L dialysate . Four months later, the former patients showed a significant decrease in serum Mg levels from 2.71±0.55;mg/dL to 2.26±0.54;mg/dL , whereas the latter did not. Similar findings have been also reported in PD by Ejaz et al. . None of the 33 patients had hypomagnesemia with the use of 0.75;mmol/L-Mg dialysate. After the change to 0.25;mmol/L Mg-dialysate, 21 patients developed hypomagnesemia. This change also resulted in lower serum albumin levels in those with than in those without hypomagnesemia . Regardless of these findings, the effects of dialysates with higher Mg concentrations on cardiovascular disease and mortality have not yet been examined. Dialysate Mg-related clinical trials are of interest and need to be conducted in the future.
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Vitamin And Mineral Recommendations For Ckd Patients
If you have kidney disease but are not on dialysis your doctor will prescribe vitamin or minerals supplements if needed. Its important to follow guidelines specific to your individual needs. For kidney disease stages 1-4 general guidelines are:
- Ensure adequate nutritional vitamin D
- Meet the Daily Reference Intakes for B-complex and C
- Iron and zinc if deficiencies are detected
Calciprotein Particle Formation Mediate Phosphate
For some years it has been established that elevated blood Pi concentrations give rise to colloidal particles in the circulation . In healthy individuals, despite supersaturated concentrations of soluble Ca2+ and Pi in the circulation, the step from soluble Pi towards amorphous CaPi rarely occurs, due to the presence of inhibitors . In CKD, the Pi concentration increases even more and the expression of inhibitory proteins or colloidal components of these particles, such as fetuin A, decreases . Therefore in the circulation of CKD patients, this protective mineral-buffering system is compromised . When this occurs, Pi, Ca2+ and serum proteins aggregate to form amorphous, soluble CaPi particles or primary calciprotein particles . Depending on the local milieu, CPP1 mature to crystalline secondary calciprotein particles . The maturation time of CPP1CPP2, which is measured ex vivo in serum samples in the recently developed T50 test, has been proposed as a measure for the calcification propensity in individuals .
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