Antagonists Of Tgf Action: Hgf
Hepatocyte growth factor is another endogenous peptide antagonizing the effects of TGF. The potential of HGF as antifibrotic agent has been recently reviewed by Liu and Yang. In the UUO and the rat remnant kidney, models of renal interstitial fibrosis, administration of recombinant HGF retarded the progression of renal lesions by blunting the myofibroblast accumulation and collagen deposition within the kidney., This action of HGF was attributed to a MAPK-dependent blockade of TGF activity in contrast, blocking of endogenous HGF by an anti-HGF-neutralizing antibody increased interstitial collagen and aggravated the degree of renal fibrosis. More recently, treatment with human HGF, in the onset of fibrogenic mechanisms, reduced renal failure and mortality, diminished tubulo-interstitial damage, induced cell regeneration, decreased inflammation and prevented late interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis in a rat model of chronic allograft nephropathy. Although promising, the above mentioned approaches were preventive with treatments started before or at the beginning of the disease no data are available showing a therapeutic effect with HGF administered after the establishment of chronic renal failure.
The Stages Of Chronic Kidney Disease
There are five stages of chronic kidney disease. Heres how they break down:
- Stage 1: You may have signs of kidney damage, like protein or blood in your urine, but its not yet affecting your kidneys overall functioning.
- Stage 2: You begin experiencing some loss of function, but its likely not detectable yet unless your doctor tests your GFR, or glomerular filtration rate, which is part of a common electrolytes laboratory i.e., basic metabolic panel . In healthy adults,GFR should be at least 90.
- Stage 3: Your kidney function drops to 40% or 50%. Youre beginning to accumulate electrolytes and fluid, but your kidneys are still working to overcompensate for the loss of functionso you still might not be aware yet of the damage.
- Stage 4: As your kidney function continues to plummet, it can no longer mask its efforts to work effectively. You begin noticing symptoms like swelling as your body accumulates salt and potassium. At this point, you may feel fatigued and tired.
- Stage 5: Later on in the disease, once functioning has dropped below 30%, you may experience loss of appetite, fatigue or insomnia, dry and itchy skin, eye puffiness, swelling of the legs, ankles, and feet, muscle cramps, frequent urination, and discolored or foamy urine . When your kidneys are operating at 15% of normal function, you may require a kidney transplant ordialysis to prevent kidney failure.
The trickiest thing about chronic kidney disease, says Dr. Malhotra, is its silent progression.
Reverse Kidney Damage Naturally
Despite the various medical advances made to help heal kidney damage, the most powerful way that you can improve your kidney health is with lifestyle changes, especially changes to your diet.
Ensuring that you eat enough potassium, phosphorous, calcium, and vitamin D is a good start, as these nutrients are fundamental to kidney health, but without controlling your high blood glucose and blood pressure, these changes are temporary.
Thats why we recommend a heavily plant-based diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains if youre suffering from high blood glucose and blood pressure. This diet is the first step to reverse insulin resistance, and can help vastly improve your cardiovascular health overall.
Eating potassium-rich foods can dramatically reduce your blood pressure, so include foods like tomatoes, potatoes, avocados, melons, oranges, bananas, nuts, seeds, dates, cruciferous vegetables into your diet on a daily basis.
One of the most effective ways to improve your kidney function is to reduce your intake of protein to approximately 0.8-1.0 g/kg body weight per day. Even though you may be tempted to eat a high-protein diet, understand that reducing your protein intake is a safe and highly effective way to reduce your risk of developing end stage renal disease .
To accomplish this, we recommend eating a low-fat, plant-based, whole-food diet because it is an effective way to eat whole foods and target 0.8-1.0 g/kg protein intake per day.
- Whole grains
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Symptoms Of Damaged Kidneys
Kidneys are responsible for sorting and flushing out toxins from our body. If your kidneys are damaged, your body will have the difficulty to manage all the unwanted chemical and other types of toxins, which are the byproducts of the body metabolism. There are some symptoms which indicate that you may have a pair of damaged kidneys. They are as follows:
- Frequent Urination
- Chest Pain
These are some general symptoms you may find if you have damaged kidneys. However, it is important to know that merely these symptoms are not sufficient enough to prove any kidney damage. Furthermore, certain types of kidney damages dont show any symptoms at the beginning stage.
Angiotensin Ii Inhibition And Renoprotection In Human Studies
After an initial observation that blockade of the angiotensin II action protected against the progression of renal failure in various renal diseases , large-scale studies concerning hypertensive patients with type II diabetes demonstrated a renoprotective efficiency of angiotensin II antagonism., , In these studies, antagonism of AT1 angiotensin II receptor reduced microalbuminuria and slowed the rate of decline of filtration rate these renoprotective effects were independent of the blood-pressure decrease, supporting the notion of dissociation between systemic and local actions of angiotensin II. However, slower pace of the progression induced by angiotensin II antagonism although promising, is very far from an arrest of progression, or even better from a recovery of the renal disease.
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Natural Remedies For Kidney Disease
Remembering that our kidneys are damaged by stress, it behooves us to get our stress under control. Whatever you choose, whether it is Yoga, Tai Qi, meditation, or fishing, any stress relief measures will benefit your Kidney. It is vital for kidney patients to be able to measure their stress. In addition, slowing and deepening the breathing is a powerful way of bringing stress under control.
Foods that are particularly nourishing to your Kidney include those that are very dark in color. These would include dark fruits and vegetables, and foods like black beans, black sesame seeds, and black walnuts. The water element comes into play when choosing foods for your Kidney. Foods from the sea, such as fish, shellfish, seaweed, kelp, and sushi are all excellent Kidney tonics.
Your acupuncturist has a number of tools to help you strengthen your Kidney organ system. They can combine acupuncture with moxibustion and herbal formulas specifically designed to nourish your Kidneys.
Symptoms Of Kidney Problems
Often people with diabetes may not notice the early symptoms of kidney problems. They may presume that health problems can be due to diabetes before they worsen. At stage 4 and stage 5 of kidney diseases, they may feel unwell and experience several symptoms. Some of the symptoms that people with kidney problems experience are:
- Shortness of breath
- Swelling of feet, ankle, eyes, or hands
- Loss of appetite
The occurrence of symptoms varies from one person to the other. Not every person with diabetes experiences all or the same symptom. Therefore, you need to check the occurrence of a symptom in your body. You can take help from the diabetes expert from Breathe Well-Being to identify the symptoms of kidney problems.
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How Fast Does Stage 3 Ckd Progress
This depends on a number of factors that will vary by patient. These include age, the underlying diagnosis, the implementation and success of secondary preventive measures, and the individual patient, according to Medscape. Studies have been done, however, to learn how to best predict progression from CKD to kidney failure.
One such study found that the following all suggested faster disease progression:
- Younger age
- Male sex
The same study also found that a higher risk of kidney failure could be predicted by a:
- Lower serum albumin, calcium, and bicarbonate level
- Higher serum phosphate level
Kidney Disease Treatments Peritoneal Dialysis
In the second type, your blood is purified inside the body. To do it, the doctor will place a plastic tube into the abdomen to make an access. During the treatment, the abdomen area is gradually filled with dialysate through the catheter. Extra fluids and toxins are drawn out of the blood and into the dialysate.
Peritoneal dialysis can be done at home and while you are sleeping. However, it needs to be done every day. Complications of this treatment include infections, hernia, and weight gain. Furthermore, after several years, peritoneal dialysis can become ineffective. You might need to switch to hemodialysis.
Please note that you only need dialysis when you develop kidney failure. Usually, this is when you lose about 85 to 90% of your kidney functions and have a GRF > 15.
In some cases of acute kidney failure, or acute renal failure, the kidneys can get better after treatment. Therefore, patients only need dialysis for a short time before their condition improves. For chronic or end-stage kidney failure, though, patients need dialysis for the rest of their life or until they get a kidney transplant, as their condition cannot improve.
Statistics showed that patients spent $88,585 for hospital hemodialysis and $55,593 for home peritoneal dialysis yearly. It should be the last resort for the high cost and potential risk when kidney patients lose almost all of their functions.
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What Are The Stages Of Kidney Disease:
At this stage, patients must take control of their hypertension and diabetes, exercise regularly, cut down on stress, and avoid smoking and alcohol.
Younger patients who reach the last stages of kidney disease are often at the risk of developing cancer.
Can Stage 2 Kidney Disease Be Reversed
Occasionally, kidney disease may be found to be caused by some temporary problem, such as a side effect of a medicine or a blockage. When the cause is identified, its possible that kidney function can improve with treatment.
Theres no cure for kidney disease that has resulted in permanent damage, including mild cases diagnosed as stage 2. However, you can take action now to avoid further progression. Its possible to have stage 2 CKD and prevent it from progressing to stage 3.
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Kidney Failure From Bleeding
Significant bleeding within a small period of time almost always results in some degree of kidney failure. Examples of significant bleeding that can cause reversible kidney failure are: excessive bleeding during surgery, bleeding from trauma, internal bleeding inside the stomach or intestines, an unstoppable nose bleed, heavy bleeding after childbirth, etc. The degree of kidney failure is proportional to the amount of blood loss. These types of bleeding almost always make you end up in the hospital. The good news is that most kidney failures from bleeding can be reversed with treatment. All we need to do to reverse the kidney failure in this situation is stop the bleeding and transfuse blood as required. Once the blood volume is properly restored, kidneys start to function normally.
What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Damage
Swelling of legs or feet and puffiness around the eyes is the most common identifying kidney failure symptoms. Along with it, other symptoms of kidney failure like frequent urge to urinate, headache, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, chest pain, etc. are also observed. Difficulty in urination is the most common sign of kidney disease.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Failure
When your kidneys begin to fail, there are often little to no outward symptoms. Often, your doctor will find that you have early stages of kidney failure during laboratory tests or examinations for some other health condition.
If you do experience symptoms, however, they may include:
- Less urine than normal
- Water weight accumulation causing your legs, feet, and ankles to swell
- Feeling like youre going to vomit
- Twitching muscles
- Pain in the stomach or back
How Is Ckd Treated
Damage to your kidneys is usually permanent. Although the damage cannot be fixed, you can take steps to keep your kidneys as healthy as possible for as long as possible. You may even be able to stop the damage from getting worse.
- Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes.
- Keep a healthy blood pressure.
- Follow a low-salt, low-fat diet.
- Exercise at least 30 minutes on most days of the week.
- Keep a healthy weight.
- Do not smoke or use tobacco.
- Limit alcohol.
- Talk to your doctor about medicines that can help protect your kidneys.
If you catch kidney disease early, you may be able to prevent kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive.
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List Of Fruits Safe For Ckd
Similarly, fruits that can be consumed without fear include blueberries, red grapes, strawberries, cherries, raspberries, and apples. Anthocyanins present in blueberries, raspberries, and strawberries lower inflammation of kidney tissues. Their mineral content is also suitable for healthy kidney function.
Working With Your Doctor To Manage Kidney Disease
While most types of kidney disease are not reversible, its still possible to maintain health and quality of life by working with your doctor and making lifestyle changes pertinent to your diagnosis. Its important to realize that no two cases of kidney failure are the same, and you should continue to rely on your care team to provide the best course of care. Make and keep regular appointments, adopt a kidney-friendly diet, and make other everyday changes to lessen symptoms.
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New Treatment For Polycystic Kidney Disease
- University of Manchester
- A new technique for treating polycystic kidney disease has been identified by researchers. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder where fluid filled cysts grow in kidneys and destroy normal renal tissue. It is the worldâs most common inherited kidney disease, affecting between 1 in 400 and 1 in 1000 people worldwide â around 12.5 million individuals.
Published in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, the treatment, which involves targeting tiny blood and lymphatic vessels inside the kidneys, is shown to improve renal function and slow progression of disease in mice.
Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder where fluid filled cysts grow in kidneys and destroy normal renal tissue. It is the worldâs most common inherited kidney disease, affecting between 1 in 400 and 1 in 1000 people worldwide â around 12.5 million individuals. A rarer form of the disease, which occurs in about one in every 20,000 live births in the UK, leads to a third of these babies dying before or just after birth.
Treatment for the condition has traditionally targeted proteins which are thought to play a role in causing the condition and are located in hair-like structures and tissue that line the inside of cysts. These treatments can help alleviate some of the symptoms of PKD but they canât currently cure the condition.
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What Kind Of Scientific Study Was This
This randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of bicarbonate supplementation for people with chronic kidney disease and metabolic acidosis.
Metabolic acidosis is a condition where there is an acid-alkali imbalance in the blood, that results in high blood acidity and low plasma bicarbonate levels. Several conditions can lead to metabolic acidosis, including heart failure, drugs or toxins, kidney failure or diabetic ketoacidosis . It is a common complication in people with advanced chronic kidney disease, and it can interfere with protein metabolism and may lead to stunted growth and loss of bone and muscle.
The study looked at 134 patients with chronic kidney disease and low blood bicarbonate levels . The patients were randomly allocated to either sodium bicarbonate supplements, 600mg taken orally three times a day , or to usual care for two years.
The researchers defined rapid progression as a reduction of creatinine clearance of more than three ml/min per 1.73m2 per year.
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How The Kidneys Work
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, located just behind your dogs ribcage. These organs each contain about a million tiny units called nephrons, which process blood to filter out waste products and extra water, which become urine.
Urine flows through your dogs bladder through tubes called ureters and are stored until your dog relieves himself.
Waste in your dogs blood comes from normal breakdown of active muscle and from his food.
After the body has taken from the food what it needs for energy and self repair, the waste is sent to the blood where it will be filtered by the kidneys. Without this process, waste products would build up and damage the body.
The kidneys also regulate levels of chemicals like sodium, phosphorus and potassium and release them back to the blood to return to the body. The right balance is necessary for life, but excess levels can be harmful.
High Blood Pressure Medications
Statistics have shown that more than half of kidney disease patients also have high blood pressure. At the same time, high blood pressure significantly affects the kidneys condition, making it worse. It is like a vicious cycle. Scientifically, your kidney is in charge of keeping your blood pressure in a healthy range. A weakened kidney loses its ability to control blood pressure. Ultimately, the blood pressure level when overboard.
Doctors often recommend Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or Angiotensin II receptor blockers to control this problem. Both of these work to relax the veins and arteries. From there, they lower the blood pressure level. Whats more, they stop an enzyme in our bodies from creating angiotensin II, a substance that narrows the blood vessels. This narrowing process often increases the pressure and makes your heart work harder.
These are the two most common medications to prescribe because they dont often cause side effects. However, unwanted effects might include dry cough, dizziness, increased potassium levels in the blood, fatigue, headaches, and loss of taste if they do occur. In rare cases, they can worsen some tissues swelling, which is already a symptom of kidney disease. Seek medical help immediately if you notice your swelling gets worse after taking medicine. It can be life-threatening if it occurs in the throat.
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