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Need A Kidney Inside The Worlds Biggest Organ Market
The illicit kidney trade in South Asia has exploded as brokers use social media to find donors.
Chennai, India Three years ago, Vikas was a school dropout helping his father till the family farm near the northern Indian city of Kanpur a job he despised.
But today, his fortunes have changed. The 26-year-old is earning much more money working as one of the hundreds of kidney brokers across the Indian subcontinent, fuelling an ever-expanding multimillion-dollar black market for the sought-after human organ.
If you have the money and want it fast, you come here. I will find you a donor and you can go home with a new kidney in a month, Vikas told Al Jazeera, speaking on the condition that his real name not be published.
According to the World Health Organisation , South Asia is now the leading transplant tourism hub globally, with India among the top kidney exporters. Each year more than 2,000 Indians sell their kidneys, with many of them going to foreigners.
|Indian Hospital Revisited|
Aadarsh, a Mumbai-based agent who also demanded anonymity to protect against police reprisals, said his kidneys have gone to recipients from Canada, Israel, Britain, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain, although more and more buyers were now coming from within India.
Social medias role
Vikas was masquerading as a young woman called Priyanka Singh on several forums when Al Jazeera first contacted him.
Supplemental Critical Illness Insurance
When we discussed qualifying major medical insurance above, we referenced some costs that you are responsible for even with comprehensive health coverage, including:
- Costs of
- Ongoing payments to maintain your policy
Sometimes these costs can be quite high, for example, if you have a or .
One option that may be able to help is . These policies generally come at a relatively low premium, but cover a limited number of illnesses, such as a heart attack, stroke, cancer or kidney failure.
Critical illness insurance usually pays a typically anywhere from a few hundred dollars up to $100,000 to help with those costs that are not covered by traditional insurance, and for non-medical costs related to the illness, like transportation or childcare. These policies pay out once or up to a specified amount, then are done, and typically do not cover pre existing conditions.
Premiums typically depend on a number of factors, including the amount of the benefit, your gender, age, health and family history.
Whether or not critical illness insurance is a good option for you depends on a number of factors, including whether or not you have funds to cover your major medical policys out of-pocket-costs, other supplemental insurance you may have access to such as through an employer and if you are able to qualify for a critical illness insurance policy.
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Are Nsaids Safe To Take If You Have Kidney Disease
NSAIDs are usually safe for occasional use when taken as directed. However, if your doctor has told you that you have low kidney function, NSAIDs might not be right for you. These medications should only be used under a doctors care by patients with kidney disease. Also, they might not be the best choice for people with heart disease, high blood pressure or liver disease. Some of these drugs affect blood pressure control. High doses over a long period of time can also lead to chronic kidney disease and even progress to kidney failure.
For people without kidney disease, the recommended dose of aspirin can be safe if you read the label and follow the directions. When taken as directed, regular use of aspirin does not seem to increase the risk of kidney disease in people who have normal kidney function. However, taking doses that are too large may temporarily and possibly permanently reduce kidney function. In people with kidney disease, aspirin may increase the tendency to bleed.
What Is Living Donation
Living donation takes place when a living person donates an organ for transplantation to another person. The living donor can be a family member, such as a parent, child, brother or sister .
Living donation can also come from someone who is emotionally related to the recipient, such as a good friend, spouse or an in-law . Thanks to improved medications, a genetic link between the donor and recipient is no longer required to ensure a successful transplant.
In some cases, living donation may even be from a stranger, which is called anonymous or non-directed donation.
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Kidney Gfr Chart By Age And Ckd Stages Table
Synopsis: Chart of Kidney Glomerular Filtration Rate number according to your age, includes table showing chronic kidney disease stages. Your GFR number tells you how much kidney function you have, as kidney disease gets worse, the GFR number goes down. “Normal” GFR is approximately 100 but you will often see it reported as > 90 or > 60 . The normal range of Kidney Glomerular Filtration Rate is 100 to 130 mL/min/1.73m2 in men and 90 to 120mL/min/1.73m2 in women below the age of 40.
Kidneys: Up To $10000 A Pop
Kidneys can be sold for as much as $10,000 a pop and it’s estimated that “organ trafficking accounts for roughly five to 10 percent of all the kidney transplants performed in the world,” according to The Atlantic.
Just last year, a 17-year-old Chinese boy decided to sell his kidney for 20,000 yuan so he could buy an iPad.
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A Kidney For $10000 Paying Donors Actually Pays Off New Study Finds
Paying living kidney donors $10,000 to give up their organs would save money over the current system based solely on altruism even if it only boosts donations by a conservative 5 percent.
Thats according to a new analysis by Canadian researchers that rekindles the ongoing debate about whether its practical and ethical to offer financial incentives for human body parts.
We have a problem. We dont have enough organ donors coming forward, said Dr. Braden Manns, an associate professor and clinical professor in nephrology at the University of Calgary. He led the new study published Thursday in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.
We need to figure out a way to solve that problem. We shouldnt throw out, out of hand, solutions that could increase donations.
But other kidney experts say that even if its cost-effective to pay people for organs, the moral issues the practice generates might backfire.
Sometimes these things have unintended consequences, said Dr. Stephen Pastan, a board member for the National Kidney Foundation and a transplant surgeon at Emory University in Atlanta. If we paid $10,000, a lot of altruistic donors would say that its just a cash transaction. Donations could go down.
Right now the question is theoretical. In the U.S., Canada and other countries except Iran paying people to donate organs is illegal.
The obvious question, the elephant in the room is, Why dont more people donate? Manns said.
What Are The Kidneys And What Do They Do
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the two kidneys filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid. Children produce less urine than adults and the amount produced depends on their age. The kidneys work around the clock a person does not control what they do. Ureters are the thin tubes of muscleone on each side of the bladderthat carry urine from each of the kidneys to the bladder. The bladder stores urine until the person finds an appropriate time and place to urinate.
The kidney is not one large filter. Each kidney is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron filters a small amount of blood. The nephron includes a filter, called a glomerulus, and a tubule. The nephrons work through a two-step process. The glomerulus lets fluid and waste products pass through it however, it prevents blood cells and large molecules, mostly proteins, from passing. The filtered fluid then passes through the tubule, which changes the fluid by sending needed minerals back to the bloodstream and removing wastes. The final product becomes urine.
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What You Can Claim
You can only claim for leave that has been paid by your employer. You cannot claim for leave covered by income protection insurance unpaid leave hours.
Donors who arent working, including jobseekers and retirees, can claim a maximum of $1,000 for eligible out-of-pocket travel and accommodation expenses relating to donating.
For a full list of what you can and cannot claim, see section 4.1.1 of the program guidelines.
If you are also participating in a state travel assistance scheme, you cannot claim for expenses that you have claimed under your state scheme.
Who Can Have A Kidney Transplant
Most people who need a kidney transplant are able to have one, regardless of their age, as long as:
- they’re well enough to withstand the effects of surgery
- the transplant has a relatively good chance of success
- the person is willing to comply with the recommended treatments required after the transplant such as taking immunosuppressant medication and attending regular follow-up appointments
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How To Cope With Side Effects
What to do about:
- headaches â make sure you rest and drink plenty of fluids. Dont drink too much alcohol. Talk to your doctor if they last longer than a week or are severe.
- feeling dizzy â if ibuprofen makes you feel dizzy, stop what youre doing and sit or lie down until you feel better. Avoid coffee, cigarettes and alcohol. If the dizziness doesnt get better within a couple of days, speak to your pharmacist or doctor.
- feeling sick â stick to simple meals. Do not eat rich or spicy food.
- being sick â have small, frequent sips of water. Speak to a pharmacist if you have signs of dehydration, such as peeing less than usual or having dark, strong-smelling pee. Dont take any other medicines to treat vomiting without speaking to a pharmacist or doctor.
- wind â try not to eat foods that cause wind . Eat smaller meals, eat and drink slowly, and exercise regularly. There are pharmacy medicines that can also help, such as charcoal tablets or simethicone.
- indigestion â if you get repeated indigestion stop taking ibuprofen and see your doctor as soon as possible. If you need something to ease the discomfort, try taking an antacid, but do not put off going to the doctor.
How Long Does Dialysis Take
occurs as the organ loses its ability to filter wastes and excess fluids from ones body. When this happens, is prescribed in order to maintain the body. Dialysis machines act as artificial kidneys mimicking the function of a healthy kidney.
When considering the possibility of , a common concern being brought up is the duration of treatments. A typical session lasts for about four hours and is done thrice a week. But this may vary depending on the following factors:
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Can You Reduce Your Risk Of Kidney Disease
Early kidney disease detection is important so that you can make lifestyle changes to support kidney health. A urine test can measure the amount of protein in your urine and a blood test can indicate how well your kidneys are removing waste.
The National Institutes of Health suggests you work to prevent or manage health conditions that can cause or accelerate kidney disease by:
- Reducing added dietary salt and sugar
- Eating a variety of health-promoting foods like fruits, vegetables and whole grains
- Limiting alcohol consumption
- Not smoking or using tobacco
- Adding physical activity to your routine
- Maintaining target blood sugar, blood pressure, and/or cholesterol levels especially if youre dealing with diabetes or heart disease
- Having regular medical check-ups and open communication with your doctor
- Getting seven to eight hours of sleep at night
- Engaging in stress-reducing activities, such as yoga or meditation
Prevention is usually the most cost-effective and least invasive way to stay healthy. That said, disease progression is not fully within our control.
When kidney disease has advanced far enough, the result is kidney failure, and that requires more serious interventions and treatments. Well look at that next.
Desperate Need For Money Lack Of Adequate Organs Lead To Mushrooming Of Cyber Forums For Illegal Sales Agents Involved Claim To Facilitate Transplants At Various Hospitals For Hefty Prices
Its not just books, clothes and electronic gadgets that are up for sale online kidneys too, are available.
Google kidneys for sale and a host of websites offering the organ pop up. On social networking forums and private sites with message boards, there are hundreds of people interested in selling and buying kidneys.
Though selling of human organs is illegal in the country, the demand for kidneys is such that despite measures to curb sales, open online forums are thriving. For people waiting for a kidney transplant 2,811 in Tamil Nadu alone these websites are a shortcut to getting a donor, a process that could take years legally. And since those offering their kidneys are usually desperate for money, if the price is right they are more than willing to sell quickly.
Message boards online are full of details including names, ages, blood groups, email addresses, health statuses, and in a few cases, even phone numbers. Some are willing to travel to any part of the country to make the sale.
Take Rahul for instance, who is from Rajasthan. He has posted a message on a social networking site, saying he is ready to sell one of his kidneys. Rahul is 27, his blood group is A positive and anybody interested, can contact him over the phone. His price: Rs. 30 lakh, of which Rs. 2 lakh needs to be paid immediately to an agent for paperwork. Rs. 8 lakh would go towards hospital costs and he would get to keep the remaining Rs. 20 lakh.
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Why Wait Until Your Kidneys Are Diseased
While the study was conducted on people with kidney disease, we could safely extrapolate the recommendations to those who want to avoid kidney disease and achieve optimal kidney function now, especially as we age.
In fact, additional research points to the actuality of physiological changes in the kidneys as we age. The research notes that a progressive reduction of the glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow are observed in conjunction with aging. The reason for these phenomena is a decrease in the plasma flow in the glomerulus, a bundle of capillaries that partially form the renal corpuscle.2
In addition, the aging kidneys experience other structural changes, such as a loss of renal mass, and decreased responsiveness to stimuli that constrict or dilate blood vessels. The study concludes with a notable summation:
age-related changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, such as reduced cardiac output and systemic hypertension, are likely to play a role in reducing renal perfusion and filtration. Finally, it is hypothesized that increases in cellular oxidative stress that accompany aging result in endothelial cell dysfunction and changes in vasoactive mediators resulting in increased atherosclerosis, hypertension and glomerulosclerosis.2
Can Analgesics Hurt Kidneys
Check with your doctor to be sure you can use these medicines safely, particularly if you have kidney disease. Heavy or long-term use of some of these medicines, such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and higher dose aspirin, can cause chronic kidney disease known as chronic interstitial nephritis. The warning labels on over-the-counter analgesics tell you not to use these medicines for more than l0 days for pain and more than three days for fever. If you have pain and/or fever for a longer time, you should see your doctor. The doctor can check for possible medical problems and advise you about what medications you should take.
If you have decreased kidney function, painkillers called NSAIDs and higher dose aspirin are not recommended. Even with normal kidney function, you should use analgesics:
- Exactly as prescribed or as on the label
- At the lowest dose possible
- For the shortest period of time
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What Clinical Trials Are Open
Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov.
This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.