The Structure Of Kidneys
Stones form inside the kidneys and the urine collecting system. How they form matters to patients because surgeons can see formation sites during stone removal by ureteroscopy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. The amount of such sites gives a clue as to future stone risk and also to possible damage done from crystal deposits in kidney tissue.
We cannot discuss where stones form unless you know how kidneys are constructed.
If you already know this, move on. But if you do not lets stop here and review how kidneys are put together.
The linked article is long, so focus only on the cutaway drawing of a kidney that shows the papillae, renal pelvis and ureter. Stones grow on the papillae.
Treating And Preventing Kidney Stones
Most kidney stones are small enough to be passed in your pee, and it may be possible to treat the symptoms at home with medication.
Larger stones may need to be broken up or removed with surgery.
It’s estimated up to half of all people who have had kidney stones will experience them again within the following 5 years.
To avoid getting kidney stones, make sure you drink plenty of water every day so you do not become dehydrated.
It’s very important to keep your urine pale in colour to prevent waste products forming into kidney stones.
The kidneys are 2 bean-shaped organs that are roughly 10cm in length.
They’re located towards the back of the abdomen on either side of the spine.
The kidneys remove waste products from the blood. The clean blood is then transferred back into the body and the waste products are passed out of the body when you pee.
Diagnosis Of Kidney Stones
Many kidney stones are discovered by chance during examinations for other conditions. Urine and blood tests can help with finding out the cause of the stone. Further tests may include:
- CT scans
- x-rays, including an intravenous pyelogram , where dye is injected into the bloodstream before the x-rays are taken.
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Prevention Of Future Stones
Once your health care provider finds out why you are forming stones, he or she will give you tips on how to prevent them. This may include changing your diet and taking certain medications. There is no “one-size-fits-all” diet for preventing kidney stones. Everyone is different. Your diet may not be causing your stones to form. But there are dietary changes that you can make to stop stones from continuing to form.
Drink enough fluids each day.
If you are not producing enough urine, your health care provider will recommend you drink at least 3 liters of liquid each day. This equals about 3 quarts . This is a great way to lower your risk of forming new stones. Remember to drink more to replace fluids lost when you sweat from exercise or in hot weather. All fluids count toward your fluid intake. But it’s best to drink mostly no-calorie or low-calorie drinks. This may mean limiting sugar-sweetened or alcoholic drinks.
Knowing how much you drink during the day can help you understand how much you need to drink to produce 2.5 liters of urine. Use a household measuring cup to measure how much liquid you drink for a day or two. Drink from bottles or cans with the fluid ounces listed on the label. Keep a log, and add up the ounces at the end of the day or 24-hour period. Use this total to be sure you are reaching your daily target urine amount of at least 85 ounces of urine daily.
Reduce the amount of salt in your diet.
Eat the recommended amount of calcium.
What Is A Kidney Stone
A kidney stone is a collection of tiny crystals in the urine that fuse together to create a hard ball that looks like a stone.
Sometimes kidney stones are called calculi , nephrolithiasis, or urolithiasis.
Stones can be found in the kidney or in the ureter, which is the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. A stone found in the kidney is called a renal calculus. A stone found in the ureter is called a ureteral calculus.
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How Should My Kidney Stone Be Treated
Historically, the treatment of kidney stones required major surgery and was associated with long hospitalization and recovery periods. However, in recent years an improved understanding of kidney stone disease, along with advances in surgical technology, has led to the development of minimally invasive and even noninvasive treatments for people with kidney stones.
At Johns Hopkins, we believe that the treatment of a patients stones requires an approach that is unique to that individual. We offer a complete range of state-of-the-art treatment options, including ESWL , ureteroscopy and PERC, and we will discuss with you the advantages and disadvantages of each therapy as they apply to your situation. Our goal is to provide each patient with a clear understanding of the nature of their stone burden as well as the most appropriate course of treatment.
When Surgery Is Necessary
If you think you might have a kidney stone, you should see your doctor as soon as possible. If youre found to have one, your doctor can help you determine whether to try to pass the stone naturally, take medication, or get the stone surgically removed.
In some circumstances, your doctor might recommend immediate surgical removal without a waiting period. This will usually be because the stone is too big to pass naturally or is blocking urine flow. If the stone is blocking the flow of urine, it can lead to an infection or renal damage.
In other circumstances, your doctor might recommend waiting to see if you can pass the stone on your own. You should check in with your doctor often during this time to see if anything is changing, especially if you have new symptoms.
During the waiting period, your doctor might recommend surgery if the stone continues to grow, youre having unmanageable pain, or you develop signs of infection, such as a fever. Infection, fever, kidney damage, intractable pain, or intractable vomiting are all indications for immediate surgery.
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How Fast Can A Kidney Stone Form
ByLewis Stonham | Submitted On May 17, 2009
Oftentimes, people who begin to experience severe low back and abdominal pain might be suffering from what are known in the medical profession as renal calculi. In laymen’s terms, these are called kidney stones. And the question “How fast can a kidney stone form?” is one of a host of queries almost every calculi sufferer eventually asks. To get the answer, there are a few things that should be understood.
To begin with, a kidney stone can form in either one of the pair of kidneys most humans are born with – one on the left flank, or dorsal aspect near the lower back, and the other on the right. The kidneys themselves are responsible for filtering out waste products and water from the bloodstream. All of these products, and the water that goes with them, ends up as urine to be excreted from our bodies as waste.
According to medical statistics, something like 15 percent of all Americans will experience at least one instance of kidney stone development in their lifetime. In this regard, they’re a relatively common medical problem, though the pain they can cause can be quite significant in some cases. Kidney stones can end up forming in the kidney due to a number of factors, dehydration being one of them.
Youve Probably Heard That Passing A Kidney Stone Can Be Very Painful But You Might Not Know Exactly What They Are Or How To Avoid One In The First Place
Kidney stones and passing a kidney stone, in particular are notorious for being painful. Theyre also surprisingly common. In fact, 11% of men and 6% of women in the United States will have a kidney stone at least once in their lifetime.
While kidney stone pain is unmistakable, its also possible to have a kidney stone and not even know it. If the stone is small enough to pass through your urinary tract, it may cause little to no pain at all but if its large and gets stuck, you may have severe pain and bleeding.
Kidney stones that cause symptoms or cannot pass on their own need to be treated by a medical professional.
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How Long Does It Take A Kidney Stone To Form
You can have kidney stones for years without knowing theyre there. As long as these stones stay in place within your kidney, you wont feel anything. Pain from a kidney stone typically starts when it moves out of your kidney. Sometimes, a stone can form more quickly within a few months.
Talk with your healthcare provider about your risk factors. They might do a 24-hour urine test to check how quickly you develop stones.
How Long Do Kidney Stone Symptoms Last
As mentioned, the time frame for these symptoms can be as short as a week or up to a month and beyond. So, even if it feels like your kidney stone pain has subsided, it’s important to reach out to your doctor since sporadic pain is common with this condition.
“While some kidney stones pass on their own, others require treatment such as medications or procedures to help break up the stone or even surgical removal. Your doctor can perform the tests needed to determine whether the stone is likely to pass on its own or if you might need treatment. In addition, your doctor can help you manage the pain associated with passing the stone,” adds Dr. Kannady.
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How Can I Prevent Kidney Stones
There are several ways to decrease your risk of kidney stones, including:
- Drink water. Drink at least six to eight 8-ounce glasses every day . Staying hydrated helps you urinate more often, which helps flush away the buildup of the substances that cause kidney stones. If you sweat a lot, be sure to drink even more.
- Limit salt. Eat less sodium. You may want to connect with a dietician for help with planning what foods you eat.
- Lose weight. If youre overweight, try to lose some pounds. Talk to your healthcare provider about an ideal weight.
- Take prescriptions. Your healthcare provider may prescribe some medications that help prevent kidney stones. The type of medication may depend on the type of stones you get.
When Should A Kidney Stone Be Treated
When a kidney stone causes pain to the extent that the pain cannot be controlled with oral pain medication, the stone should be treated. Similarly, stones that are associated with severe nausea or vomiting should be treated. Some stones are associated with infection or fever such situations can be life threatening and demand prompt attention. Stones that are associated with a solitary kidney, poor overall kidney function or complete blockage of urine flow should also all be treated.
Sometimes, when a stone is associated with bothersome symptoms, it may be appropriate to wait and see if the stone will pass on its own. If the stone is small, this is a very reasonable course of action. However, stones larger in size than 5 mm are unlikely to pass on their own and should be considered for treatment.
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How Long Is Recovery From Kidney Stone Removal Surgery
Percutaneous stone removal a direct puncture into your kidney through the skin in your side Key Points Lithotripsy is a low risk, non-invasive way of treating stones in the kidney or ureter Shockwaves are focused through the skin, onto the stone, using X-
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kidney stone surgery recovery. You’ll typically have to stay in the hospital for a day or two afterward. Usually, a stent will have to stay in your kidney for a few days to help urine drain. After the ureteroscope is removed and the liquid in your bladder is emptied, you will recover while the anesthesia wears off. That could take 1 to 4 hours.
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anaesthesia and surgery seems a more rational approach. In 1986, Hudson et al. 45 published a report of percutaneous drainage of a kidney from a diabetic.
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surgical removal. There is a significant risk of recurrent urolithiasis in any individual that has experienced one episode, so taking measures to help prevent their.
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Nonsurgical Kidney Stone Solutions
At Stone Relief Center, Dr. Buschemeyer offers several procedures to help remove kidney stones, depending on your unique situation. The first step in determining your treatment options involves on-site diagnostic imaging to diagnose your stones location and size.
One of the most common options for urinary stones involves extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy . When you undergo ESWL, we use sound waves to break your kidney deposits up into smaller pieces. This therapy makes it easier for you to pass them in your urine, but it only works for certain urinary stones.
These treatments typically take 45-60 minutes, and we provide sedation or anesthesia to keep you comfortable throughout the entire process. And, inmost cases, stones are removed the same day or within 24 hours of diagnosis. Fast relief is important to us.
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Plaque Forms In The Loops Of Henle
How could be know this? We find the plaque but we cannot watch it form.
This way. Find the smallest possible deposits, deposits so small we need powerful microscopes. Where is it? Plaque begins like all crystals, as tiny nuclei that grow, so the formation site will contain very small deposits.
That is not sufficient. Look for the site that always contains plaque even when the amounts of plaque are tiny. Possibly that could be between the interstitial cells. Or in the walls of the vasa recta, or the loops of Henle. Maybe, in the interstitial cells.
Of these, the loops won the prize. The most minute deposits lie in their walls. The blowup in the picture shows four cells lining a length of a loop segment. Between them the red arrow stands for tubule fluid. On their bottom sides run the basement membranes that face onto the interstitial space.
In those basement membranes we find plaque originates. From them or over them plaque expands between the loops and vessels until it reaches the papillary covering membrane. It lies beneath it, dormant, until some breach of that membrane permits urine to contact it whereupon a stone can form.
Why Do Doctors Examine The Contents Of The Stone
There are four types of stones. Studying the stone can help understand why you have it and how to reduce the risk of further stones. The most common type of stone contains calcium. Calcium is a normal part of a healthy diet. The kidney usually removes extra calcium that the body doesn’t need. Often people with stones keep too much calcium. This calcium combines with waste products like oxalate to form a stone. The most common combination is called calcium oxalate.
Less common types of stones are: Infection-related stones, containing magnesium and ammonia called struvite stones and stones formed from monosodium urate crystals, called uric acid stones, which might be related to obesity and dietary factors. The rarest type of stone is a cvstine stone that tends to run in families.
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What If Shock Wave Lithotripsy Doesnt Work
In some cases, shock wave lithotripsy doesnt break up a stone enough for all pieces to pass on their own. If that happens, you may need another procedure.
Depending on your situation, your provider may recommend a second shock wave lithotripsy. Or your provider may suggest clearing any remaining stones through a minimally invasive procedure called ureteroscopy. Talk to your healthcare provider about the different types of kidney stone treatments.
How Do I Know If I Have A Kidney Stone
Articles On Kidney Stones
How can you know for sure its a kidney stone that ails you?
Know Your Symptoms
Because kidney stones can affect just about anyone, its important to know the signs of this common condition. They might include:
- Pain in your back or side
- Pain that moves into your lower belly
- Lots of urinating
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You may have one or several of these symptoms. It depends on the size and location of the kidney stone.
The only way to know for sure that you have a kidney stone is to see a doctor so they can make a diagnosis. You should make an appointment if you:
- Cant get comfortable standing, sitting, or lying down
- Have nausea and serious pain in your belly
- Notice blood in your urine
- Have a hard time trying to pee
Be ready to describe your symptoms, including when they started. You might want to write them down, along with a list of the medications and vitamins and supplements you take.
You should also try to keep track of how much you drink and pee in a 24-hour period. If your doctor thinks you might have kidney stones, they may order one or more tests.
Tests for Kidney Stones
There are several ways your doctor can test for kidney stones. They include:
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After Your Diagnosis
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