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How Do Kidneys Affect Blood Pressure

Men In Study Are Part Of Larger Vietnam Registry

High Blood Pressure and Your Kidneys – A to Z Guide

The 316 men taking part in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging are part of a larger group of volunteers who make up the Vietnam Twin Registry. The total registry contains data on some 7,000 middle-aged male twin pairs, all of whom served in the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. All the men served between 1964 and 1975.

Managed by VAs Seattle-based Epidemiologic Research and Information Center, the registry is among the largest twin registries in the nation, with members in all 50 states. It was initially formed to help answer questions about the long-term health effects of service in Vietnam, but today it serves as a resource for studies on a wide range of mental and physical health conditions.

McEvoy and Kremens team received support from the National Institutes of Health and VA. Besides VA, participating institutions were the UCSD, Boston University, and the University of Southern California.

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What Are The Kidneys And What Do They Do

Healthy kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra water to make urine. The urine flows from each kidney to the bladder through a pair of thin tubes called ureters, one on each side of your bladder. Your bladder stores urine. Your kidneys, ureters, and bladder are part of your urinary tract system.

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What Hypertension Does To Your Kidneys

You can see this chicken-or-egg effect with high blood pressure and kidney disease as well. Hypertension puts extra pressure on the kidneys filtering units, which can lead to scarring. This impairs the kidneys ability to regulate fluid, which increases blood pressure.

If this cycle is not stopped, it can lead to kidney disease and kidney failure, says hypertension specialist George Thomas, MD, who is Director of the Center for Blood Pressure Disorders in the Department of Nephrology and Hypertension.

High blood pressure and uncontrolled diabetes are the most common causes of kidney disease.

Unfortunately, the vast majority of people with kidney disease dont realize they have it. The signs and symptoms may be attributed to other conditions and usually appear when the kidneys have already begun to fail. Here are symptoms to watch for:

  • Unusual fatigue.

Over Time High Blood Pressure Harms Renal Blood Vessels

Does Kidney Function Affect Blood Pressure

The nephrons in the kidneys are supplied with a dense network of blood vessels, and high volumes of blood flow through them. Over time, uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause arteries around the kidneys to narrow, weaken or harden. These damaged arteries are not able to deliver enough blood to the kidney tissue.

  • Damaged kidney arteries don’t filter blood well. Kidneys have small, finger-like nephrons that filter your blood. Each nephron receives its blood supply through tiny hair-like capillaries, the smallest of all blood vessels. When the arteries become damaged, the nephrons don’t receive the essential oxygen and nutrients. Then the kidneys lose their ability to filter blood and regulate the fluid, hormones, acids and salts in the body.
  • Damaged kidneys fail to regulate blood pressure. Healthy kidneys respond to a hormone called aldosterone which is produced in the adrenal glands, to help the body regulate blood pressure. Kidney damage and uncontrolled high blood pressure contribute to a negative spiral. As more arteries become blocked and stop functioning, the kidneys eventually fail.

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How Can I Strengthen My Kidneys

Here are some tips to help keep your kidneys healthy. Keep active and fit. Control your blood sugar. Monitor blood pressure. Monitor weight and eat a healthy diet. Drink plenty of fluids. Dont smoke. Be aware of the amount of OTC pills you take. Have your kidney function tested if youre at high risk.

How The Kidneys Work Or Dont

The kidneys main job is to filter accumulated waste products from normal cell function throughout the body and the food you eat and excess fluids from the blood and excrete them in your urine. Heres how it works.

Blood enters your kidneys through an artery, and urine exits your kidneys through tubes called ureters that lead to your bladder.

Your kidneys, which are each about the size of a fist and located below your rib cage on either side of your spine, each contain about 1 million nephrons, or filtering units. Each nephron contains a network of tiny blood vessels that acts as a filter, called a glomerulus.

Waste products as well as salt and minerals your body needs sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus are filtered into tiny tubules, where they are either reabsorbed into the blood or passed into urine.

When a nephron can no longer filter effectively because the glomerulus is damaged, the remaining working nephrons take on the extra work. At first, even if a large number of nephrons stop working, you wont experience a buildup of waste products or fluid.

But as more and more nephrons stop functioning, the remaining nephrons can no longer keep up, and waste products and fluid begin to accumulate in your body.

When your kidneys are not able to filter waste products from the blood as well as they should, you can develop CKD. This can lead to a gradual loss of kidney function, which can worsen over time and eventually lead to kidney failure if left untreated.

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Kidneys and High Blood Pressure: Dr. Michael Roizen, Cleveland Clinic Chief Wellness Officer

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Protein Or Blood In The Urine

Urinalysis or urine testing is used to look for abnormalities such as an excess amount of protein, blood, pus, bacteria or sugar. A urine test can help to detect a variety of kidney and urinary tract disorders, including chronic kidney disease, diabetes, bladder infections and kidney stones. A trace of one type of protein, albumin in urine is an early sign of chronic kidney disease. Persistent amounts of albumin and other proteins in the urine indicate kidney damage. The presence of albumin is also a risk factor for cardiovascular events and death.

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Keeping Your Kidneys Healthy

There are a number of things you can do to keep your kidneys healthy, including:

  • If you have diabetes, make sure that your blood sugar control is excellent. Follow your doctors advice about insulin injections, medicines, diet, physical activity and monitoring your blood sugar.
  • Control high blood pressure. Have your blood pressure checked regularly. Medications used to lower blood pressure , such as ACE inhibitors or angiotensin blockers, can slow the development of kidney disease.
  • If you have one of the risk factors for kidney disease, have a kidney health check at least every two years .
  • Treat urinary tract infections immediately.
  • Control blood cholesterol levels with diet and medications if necessary.
  • Drink plenty of water and choose foods that are low in sugar, fat and salt, but high in fibre. Stick to moderate serving sizes.
  • Drink alcohol in moderation only.
  • Stay at a healthy weight for your height and age.
  • Try to exercise moderately for at least 30 minutes a day.

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Strengths And Limitations Of This Study

  • The first study that investigated the relation between dynamic blood pressure measurements and kidney function over time in participants aged 60years and older.

  • Large primary care study population representative of the population of Flanders with a long follow-up period.

  • Analyses in various age strata were performed in order to detect possibly different patterns due to age.

  • The presence of multimorbidity was included in the analyses.

  • Lack of mortality data, data on renal replacement therapy, insufficient data on proteinuria/albuminuria and no standardised measurements of creatinine and blood pressure.

  • The results are purely descriptive and were not adjusted for time-dependent changes in medication prescription and incident comorbidity.

  • Weaknesses inherent to a retrospective design and registry data: possible healthy survivor bias, no information about missing data and loss to follow-up.

How Does High Blood Pressure Affect My Kidneys

What is the cause of pressure in a human kidney?

Here is how high blood pressure can affect your kidneys:

  • Your kidneys need a lot of blood in order to filter fluid and waste out of your body.
  • If high blood pressure damages the blood vessels that deliver blood to your kidneys, your kidneys will act as if you are dehydrated .
  • So, your kidneys will tell your body to hold on to extra salt and fluid.
  • As your blood fills with this extra salt and fluid, your blood pressure goes up. In time, this can lead to kidney failure.
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    How Does The Urinary System Work

    Your kidneys work non-stop, with all of your blood passing through them every 5 minutes.

    The urine that collects is a mix of waste and excess fluid. It is carried to your bladder to be stored. Muscles in the bladder wall stay relaxed, so it can expand as it fills. Other muscles work like a dam to keep urine in your bladder until you are ready to go to the toilet. Your brain controls your bladder, signalling it when to hold urine and when to empty. Urinary incontinence is when there is accidental or involuntary loss of urine from the bladder.

    To urinate normally, all parts of your urinary tract must work together in proper order. When you are ready to go to the toilet, your bladder outlet muscles relax and your bladder wall muscles contract. Urine empties from your bladder through your urethra and exits your body.

    Medications That Can Harm The Kidneys

    No matter what kind of medicine you take, whether OTC or prescription, it is destined to take a trip through your kidneys. Taking a drug the wrong way or in excessive amounts can damage these vital, bean-shaped organs and lead to serious complications. In the worst-case scenario, it could necessitate a kidney transplant.

    Compared with 30 years ago, patients todayhave a higher incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, take multiple medications, and are exposed to more diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the potential to harm kidney function, according to Cynthia A. Naughton, PharmD, senior associate dean and associate professor in the department of pharmacy practice at North Dakota State University. All of these factors are associated with an elevated risk of kidney damage.

    An estimated 20% of cases of acute kidney failure are due to medications. The technical term for this scenario is nephrotoxicity, which is growing more common as the aging population grows, along with rates of various diseases.

    The kidneys get rid of waste and extra fluid in the body by filtering the blood to produce urine. They also keep electrolyte levels balanced and make hormones that influence blood pressure, bone strength and the production of red blood cells. When something interferes with the kidneys, they cant do their job, so these functions can slow down or stop altogether.

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    Summary Of All Study Subjects

    Overall, 28,258 subjects with 66% male and at age of 69.4±6.2 years were studied. The prevalence of hypertension, hypotension, obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes were 68.2%, 4.4%, 10.4%, 41.2% and 47.6%, respectively. Males were more likely to have hypertension than females but females were more likely to have hypotension than males . SBP was as high in women as in men whereas women had lower DBP and larger PBP than men . Estimated GFR by MDRD formula was higher than that calculated by CKD-EPI equation . There was a mean difference of 3.5ml/min/1.73m2 between MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR when their average was less than 98ml/min/1.73m2 but the difference became larger and larger when their average value was more than 98ml/min/1.73m2. Many extreme high values of GFR could be easily obtained by MDRD equation .

    Comparison between MDRD formula and CKD-EPI equation in the elderly. A: Bland-Altman plot of MDRD and CDK-EPI eGFR B: Boxchart of MDRD and CDK-EPI eGFR. â represents extreme values, â represents outliers.

    How Does Blood Pressure Affect The Kidneys

    The Relationship Between Blood Pressure and Kidneys

    Joe Rutkowski, PhD, an assistant professor in the Texas A& M College of Medicine, explains his research on blood pressure and its effect on the kidneysand vice versa.

    Christina Sumners: Welcome to Science Sound Off, Im Christina Sumners.

    Tim Schnettler: And Im Tim Schnettler.

    Christina Sumners: Our guest today is Dr. Joe Rutkowski, an assistant professor of medical physiology at Texas A& M College of Medicine. Welcome, Dr. Rutkowski.

    Joe Rutkowski: Thank you for having me.

    Christina Sumners: So you and some of your fellow researchers have recently received a couple of major grants to study the interaction of renal lymphatics and blood pressure. Could you tell me a little bit about what you guys are up to?

    Joe Rutkowski: So the lymphatic system is really underappreciated by most in the medical field. Its part, it closes the circulatory loop, and its responsible for the clearance of fluid, macromolecules, and immune cells from peripheral tissues and bringing them back into central circulation. As such, it plays a critical role in inflammation and immunity. And work over the last decade in many labs has identified that hypertension is in part a disease of chronic inflammation in the kidney. And so we hypothesized that changes in the kidneys lymphatic architecture would play a role in regulating blood pressure.

    Christina Sumners: So how can high blood pressure affect your kidneys, or does it affect your kidneys in any way?

    Tim Schnettler: The lymphatic. Either one.

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