Blockage Or Narrowing In The Urethra Or Bladder Neck
For you to be able to urinate normally, all parts of your urinary tract need to work together in the correct order. Urine normally flows from your kidneys, through the ureters to your bladder, and out the urethra. If a blockage or narrowing occurs somewhere along the urinary tract, you may have difficulty urinating, and if the blockage is severe, you may not be able to urinate at all.
Medical problems that may narrow the urethra and block urine flow include
Abnormal Urine Volume And Urination
One of the most obvious signs of kidney failure is changes in the amount of urine produced and the number of times a person urinates in a day. With kidney failure there is reduced urine output and sometimes no urine altogether . Since the kidneys are not functioning properly it can therefore not produce sufficient urine.
However, the opposite may occur in certain kidney diseases like interstitial nephritis and pyelonephritis. In these instances there may be increased urine production as water cannot be reabsorbed and preserved. Polyuria leads to frequent urination.
Since Chronic Kidney Disease Is Basically Just A Wearing Out Process How Is It Treated
The treatment of chronic kidney disease depends on the results of blood tests, and specific treatments are aimed at resolving specific abnormalities. In some cases, the kidneys are damaged beyond repair before diagnosis and medical treatment is ineffective. However, with early diagnosis and aggressive treatment, many dogs will live a normal lifestyle for many months or years.
Treatment usually occurs in two phases, first flushing the kidneys and removing the accumulated toxins from the blood, and then providing treatments to manage the disease and delay its progression.
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Other Symptoms Of Renal Failure
Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. Loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting are common symptoms of severe kidney failure. They usually appear when the blood urea concentration gets quite high, but some changes in appetite, particularly an aversion to meat, can occur much earlier.
What Is A Kidney Problem
The kidneys form part of the urinary system, one of the bodyâs major filtration systems. Most people have two kidneys, situated in the upper abdominal area towards the muscles of the back and the edge of the ribs. The kidneys form part of the urinary system along with the two ureters, the bladder and urethra. Kidney problems affect the kidneys, but because the system works together, the effects of a kidney problem are sometimes felt throughout the system.
The kidneys themselves clean the blood by filtering it in the nephrons, which are made up of a renal tubule and a renal corpuscle. The corpuscle is made up of a glomerulus enclosed by the Bowmanâs capsule. To filter the blood, it is passed through the glomeruli at higher pressure than the bodyâs usual blood pressure. Filtered waste products collect inside the Bowmanâs capsule, while filtered, clean blood is passed back out of the glomeruli into the circulatory system. The tubule collects the waste products from the Bowmanâs capsule while also working on further exchanging certain substances and also reabsorbing water and certain minerals so they donât go to waste. The final resulting liquid is then passed into the ureters as urine. Urine collects in the bladder, which stores it until it is released by the urethra.
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Fatigue Drowsiness And Weakness
Apart from disturbances in the fluid levels within the body, there is also disruptions in the levels of electrolytes and waste substances. As a result these substances accumulate in the body and can affect various biochemical processes. It may present as symptoms such as fatigue and even drowsiness.
There may also be muscle weakness. Initially these symptoms appear as lethargy and gradually worsens if the kidney damage or disease persists. To some extent and depending on the severity of kidney dysfunction, the symptoms may be mistaken for intoxication.
Key Targets For Improving Management Of All Symptoms
Meeting participants identified three overarching recommendations for spurring innovation in symptom therapeutics that transcended symptom type. First, participants recognized dialysis care delivery system aspects, such as communication, care team support, and clinic environment, as relevant to symptom management. Data from patients with advanced cancer have shown a link between symptom reporting and better patient-reported and health outcomes . However, data suggest that patients on dialysis may under-report their symptoms to care teams . To improve symptom management, clinicians must routinely address symptoms with their patients. Developing standardized care processes that foster patientcare team communication and facilitate symptom-related discussions, such as clinician rounding tools, may enhance communication. Patient support groups and mentoring programs are also potential strategies for improving symptom management and coping.
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What Are The Specific Types Of Feline Kidney Disease
There are many types of kidney disease in cats. Some are congenital and some are developmental.
Your veterinarian will be able to tell you which type your cat has.
While I cant get into every specific type of renal disease, here are some types you may encounter.
- Renal agenesis is the failure of kidney formation: sometimes kidneys dont form at all.
- Renal dysplasia: means abnormal kidney development.
- If one or both kidneys are displaced, your cat may be diagnosed with renal ectopia.
- And then there is polycystic kidney disease which comes with the formation of cysts throughout the kidney tissue.
Kidneys are complex.
That means there are a lot of things that could go wrong.
Structural issues, blood vessel problems, responses to outside influences, all the way down to the cells that make up the kidneystheres so much to know about these small but important organs.
While listing all of the exact diseases and congenital problems are beyond the scope of this article, I found a comprehensive list right here.
This informative video can also help shed some light on kidney failure in cats:
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Types And Causes Of Stomach Problems
There are numerous different stomach problems and each can be triggered by different cause. The treatment is determined based on the underlying cause. Therefore its important to diagnose the cause clearly.
The intensity, how it feels like, whether it comes with another symptom, or how long the symptom lasts may help doctors make the diagnosis. Unfortunately, sometime the cause is not known.
Abdominal cramps with diarrhea
One of possible answers is gastroenteritis . The abdominal cramps usually come suddenly, and followed with diarrhea. But the problem is usually harmless or even may improve on its own after a few days.
Gastroenteritis is an infection in the bowel or stomach. Many times, it is caused by getting a close contact with an individual whos infected. It may also occur due to food poisoning or consuming contaminated food.
Another possible cause is irritable bowel syndrome or IBS. This is particularly true if the problem becomes chronic or when you have repeated bouts of abdominal cramps and diarrhea.
Abdominal cramps with bloating
Most of the time, trapped wind is to blame for abdominal cramps with bloating. It is common and easy to deal with but sometime it can be embarrassing, too. It usually improves with over-the-counter such as mebeverine or buscopan.
Recurring, long-term stomach pain
Sometime urinary tract infection such as kidney infection is to blame for this symptom. But it also can be linked to long-term conditions such as:
Sudden severe stomach pain
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Prevention Of Muscle Cramps
Measures to prevent cramps include the following:
Not exercising immediately after eating
Gently stretching the muscles before exercising or going to bed
Drinking plenty of fluids after exercise
Not consuming stimulants
The runnerâs stretch is most useful. A person stands with one leg forward and bent at the knee and the other leg behind and the knee straightâa lunge position. The hands can be placed on the wall for balance. Both heels remain on the floor. The knee of the front leg is bent further until a stretch is felt along the back of the other leg. The greater the distance between the two feet and the more the front knee is bent, the greater the stretch. The stretch is held for 30 seconds and repeated 5 times. The set of stretches is repeated on the other side.
Most of the drugs often prescribed to prevent cramps are not recommended. Most have no demonstrated efficacy. Quinine has been effective in some trials but is no longer recommended because of occasional serious adverse effects . Mexiletine sometimes helps, but whether using it is worth the risk of adverse effects is unclear. These effects include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, dizziness, and tremor.
Some athletic coaches and physicians recommend pickle juice for muscle cramping, but data concerning its efficacy are insufficient.
Pyelonephritis Kidney Infection Signs And Symptoms
Written byEmily LunardoPublished onAugust 9, 2016
Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys, which are part of the urinary system that also includes the urethra, ureters, bladder, and prostate for men. The kidneys primary role is filtering the bodys waste products, regulating blood pressure, and maintaining a normal concentration of electrolytes in the body.
When an infection occurs in the kidneys, it is known as an upper urinary tract infection, or pyelonephritis. Here we will outline the signs and symptoms related to a kidney infection.
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What Causes Chronic Kidney Disease
Although chronic kidney disease sometimes results from primary diseases of the kidneys themselves, the major causes are diabetes and high blood pressure.
- Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus cause a condition called diabetic nephropathy, which is the leading cause of kidney disease in the United States.
- High blood pressure , if not controlled, can damage the kidneys over time.
- Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation and damage of the filtration system of the kidneys, which can cause kidney failure. Postinfectious conditions and lupus are among the many causes of glomerulonephritis.
- Polycystic kidney disease is a hereditary cause of chronic kidney disease wherein both kidneys have multiple cysts.
- Use of analgesics such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen , and naproxen regularly over long durations of time can cause analgesic nephropathy, another cause of kidney disease. Certain other medications can also damage the kidneys.
- Clogging and hardening of the arteries leading to the kidneys causes a condition called ischemic nephropathy, which is another cause of progressive kidney damage.
- Obstruction of the flow of urine by stones, an enlarged prostate, strictures , or cancers may also cause kidney disease.
- Other causes of chronic kidney disease include HIV infection, sickle cell disease, heroin abuse, amyloidosis, kidney stones, chronic kidney infections, and certain cancers.
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Supplements For Cats With Kidney Disease
Along with a new, healthier diet, your vet may recommend supplements.
Phosphorus binders are one common supplement for cats suffering renal failure.
Vitamin D supplements are another favorite.
Its important to avoid any home remedies or herbal supplements.
Your sweet kitty is depending on you to make good decisions regarding her care now that she is suffering from kidney disease.
Some herbal supplements will do much more harm than good. Its just not worth the risk.
Be sure to follow your vets dietary and supplement advice carefully.
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What Is The Treatment And Management Of Chronic Kidney Disease
There is no cure for chronic kidney disease. The four goals of therapy are to:
Strategies for slowing progression and treating conditions underlying chronic kidney disease include the following:
- Control of blood glucose: Maintaining good control of diabetes is critical. People with diabetes who do not control their blood glucose have a much higher risk of all complications of diabetes, including chronic kidney disease.
- Control of high blood pressure: This also slows progression of chronic kidney disease. It is recommended to keep blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg if one has kidney disease. It is often useful to monitor blood pressure at home. Blood pressure medications known as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers have special benefit in protecting the kidneys.
- Diet: Diet control is essential to slowing progression of chronic kidney disease and should be done in close consultation with a health care practitioner and a dietitian. For some general guidelines, see the Chronic Kidney Disease Self-Care at Home section of this article.
The complications of chronic kidney disease may require medical treatment.
- Allergic reactions
Diuretics also may cause a decline in kidney function especially if fluid is removed rapidly from the body.
Heading Off The Dreaded Cramp
Cramp in patients with late stage chronic kidney disease and on dialysis when it is hard to get up and move aroundis one of the worst symptoms of CKD5 and CKD5d. It is also one of the hardest to fully explain to patients, and to treat. We are not sure why some suffer more cramp than others. Despite how common and painful they are, the cause of cramp is poorly understood and under-researched…the latter, a real shame.
In CKD5d, cramp is most often found with a high ultrafiltration rate, and towards the end of a dialysis run. But, this is not always the case, as patients with a low UFR may also sometimes cramp.
In the dialysis patient, cramp tends to occur or to be worse late in a run. It tends to parallel the magnitude of changein speed or degreeof change to the blood volume. Change to the inter-compartmental balance of salts like sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium is also a factor. Any acute change to blood volume and/or levels of electrolytes will also change extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes and electrolyte levels. The more abrupt or brief a treatment, the greater the risk of trans-compartmental electrolyte imbalance, and altered homeostasis.
An intra-dialytic change in the concentration of key electrolytes will result from:
- Vit E
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Kidney Disease And Severe Muscle Cramps
Possible causes of muscle cramps in kidney disease patients Low blood calcium level When kidneys can not work normally, extra phosphorus will build up in the body, in this way, low blood calcium level may occur. As a kind of electrolyte, calcium has close connection with nerve muscle excitability.
When you are in kidney disease stage 4, potassium deficiency occurs and causes leg, food cramps. Kidney Damage, especially when on Dialysis. It is important to treat the underlying disease to relieve any cramping. medicine side effects. Some medications can produce muscle cramps in the legs or feet as a side effect.
Alport syndrome is one of the most rapidly progressive forms of CKD and a truly devastating disease to those patients and the families who are affected by it. If approved, bardoxolone may be the.
Severe vomiting Abdominal pain Back pain Muscle cramps No urine output or high urine output Pale skin Nosebleeds Swelling of the tissues Eye.
According to the patient, the leg pain had worsened during the previous six months and was so severe that he was barely able to walk without pain. He was a.
Kidney disease is one of the silent diseases that can lead to severe.
A buildup of toxins in the circulation can cause sudden muscle twitching.
What are the symptoms of kidney failure? · Itching · Muscle cramps · Nausea and vomiting · Not feeling hungry · Swelling in your feet and ankles · Too.
Patients with chronic.
May 31, 2018.
Is There A Diet For Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease is a disease that must be managed in close consultation with a doctor. Self-treatment is not appropriate.
- There are, however, several important dietary rules one can follow to help slow the progression of kidney disease and decrease the likelihood of complications.
- This is a complex process and must be individualized, generally with the help of a health care practitioner and a registered dietitian.
The following are general dietary guidelines:
- Protein restriction: Decreasing protein intake may slow the progression of chronic kidney disease. A dietitian can help one determine the appropriate amount of protein.
- Salt restriction: Limit to 2 to 4grams a day to avoid fluid retention and help control high blood pressure.
- Fluid intake: Excessive water intake does not help prevent kidney disease. In fact, the doctor may recommend restriction of water intake.
- Potassium restriction: This is necessary in advanced kidney disease because the kidneys are unable to remove potassium. High levels of potassium can cause abnormal heart rhythms. Examples of foods high in potassium include bananas, oranges, nuts, avocados, and potatoes.
- Phosphorus restriction: Decreasing phosphorus intake is recommended to protect bones. Eggs, beans, cola drinks, and dairy products are examples of foods high in phosphorus.
Other important measures that a patient can take include:
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