What Are The Ureters
Ureters are long, narrow tubes that drain urine from your kidneys to your bladder. Normally one ureter leads from each kidney to your bladder. In the case of duplicated systems, two ureters drain a single kidney. One ureter drains the upper pole of your kidney and the other drains the lower pole. This condition may affect one or both kidneys.
Symptoms Of Ectopic Kidney
Ectopic kidneys normally go unnoticed and may be detected in adults when they undergo an examination for an unrelated reason. Patients with ectopic kidneys are sometimes predisposed to conditions such as urinary tract infection and kidney stones and may present with symptoms like fever and pain in the abdomen. Some patients suffer from vesicoureteric reflux, where the urine flows back from the bladder to the kidney, which can cause repeated infections. Other associated defects with ectopic kidney like urinary tract anomalies, reproductive system anomalies and skeletal malformations.
Prenatal sonography can detect ectopic kidneys in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Timely diagnosis allows for regular monitoring and helps to prevent complications such as hypertension and renal failure.
Some of the diagnostic techniques for ectopic kidneys include:
Ultrasound: This procedure makes use of a transducer that directs painless sound waves to provide an image of the internal organs. This procedure may be performed in a hospital or an outpatient center.
Intravenous Pyelogram : This is an x-ray of the urinary tract, obtained following injection of a dye, which travels to the kidney and passes through the urinary tract. Thus, any structural anomalies in the urinary tract can be detected.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging : This technique uses magnets and radio waves to provide images of the internal structures of the body. A contrast dye may be used to detect the internal structures.
Can My Pregnancy Continue After An Ectopic Pregnancy
Unfortunately, an ectopic pregnancy is fatal for the fetus. It cannot survive outside of the uterus. Quick treatment for an ectopic pregnancy is important to protect the mothers life. If the egg has implanted in the fallopian tube and the tube bursts, there can be severe internal bleeding. This can lead to maternal death.
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Can An Ectopic Pregnancy Be Saved
Meredith Shur, MD, FACOG, is board-certified in obstetrics and gynecology, as well as a certified medical examiner.
Verywell / JR Bee
An ectopic pregnancy is one in which the fertilized egg implants somewhere other than in the uterus, most often in the fallopian tubes.
As the pregnancy advances, the developing fetus will cause the tube to stretch and sometimes rupture, leading to potentially life-threatening internal bleeding. While there have been rare, well-publicized cases where an ectopic pregnancy has been brought to term, pregnancies of this sort are almost universally considered nonviable.
Whats Expected After Duplex Kidney Is Treated
The amount of recovery time needed after surgery depends on the procedure performed and the age of the patient. Children usually need one to two days in the hospital for recovery, then continued rest at home for one to two weeks.
An ultrasound of your kidney is usually done four to six weeks after surgery.
No long-term problems with kidney function or sexual function will result from treatment.
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Prevention Of Urinary Stones During Pregnancy
Prevention of urinary stones during pregnancy is the key and is the best cure. Here are the simple prevention tips –
- Drink plenty of fluids including water and keep the body hydrated.
- Dont hold in the urine, even if it means frequent trips to the washroom or toilet
- Reduce intake of high oxalate foods such as nuts, chocolates, dark green leafy vegetables, and berries
- Discuss prophylactic treatment with specialist when planning pregnancy, especially if there is history of kidney stones
- Be physically active and exercise as per doctors guidelines
- Instantly consult doctor in case of severe pain in the abdominal area
Kidney stones during pregnancy is difficult to manage as it can lead to obstetric complications and fetal harm. A multidisciplinary team should care for women receiving treatment for kidney stone during pregnancy in India.
What Is The Treatment For An Ectopic Kidney
An ectopic kidney only needs treatment if it causes problems with your urine flow. If this is the case, your healthcare provider will need to evaluate your kidney. If the problem is caught soon enough, your healthcare provider can treat it. This includes treating the infection, removing the blockage, or fixing the urine flow before kidney damage happens. Sometimes surgery may be needed. This can correct the position of the kidney. That will lead to better drainage of urine.
If the kidney is severely damaged and not working properly, your healthcare provider may suggest removing it. This will only be done if your other kidney is working well.
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What Are Some Factors That Make A Pregnancy High Risk
Several factors can make a pregnancy high risk, including existing health conditions, the mothers age, lifestyle, and health issues that happen before or during pregnancy.
This page provides some possible factors that could create a high-risk pregnancy situation. This list is not meant to be all-inclusive, and each pregnancy is different, so the specific risks for one pregnancy may not be risks for another. Women who have any questions about their pregnancy should talk to a healthcare provider.
For the latest information on COVID-19 and pregnancy, visit CDC at .
Shoulder Tip Or Neck Pain
Shoulder tip pain can be a distinguishing factor in diagnosing ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage, as opposed to appendicitis. However, all three conditions require immediate medical attention.
Pain the neck and/or shoulder tip is often the distinguishing symptom indicating that the ectopic pregnancy has ruptured or miscarried. It is because of internal bleeding that irritates the diaphragm. This type of pain is quite unlike that caused by bad posture. The pain may begin suddenly and may often be accompanied by a general sense of discomfort, abdominal pain, or vaginal bleeding.
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What Is An Ectopic Pregnancy
An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that happens outside of the uterus. This happens when a fertilized egg implants in a structure that cant support its growth. An ectopic pregnancy often happens in the fallopian tube . In rare cases, an ectopic pregnancy can occur on an ovary or in the abdominal cavity.
This is a life-threatening condition. An ectopic pregnancy is not a pregnancy that can be carried to term and can be dangerous for the mother if not treated right away.
The Facts About Ectopic Pregnancies
Roughly one in 50 pregnancies are ectopicgrowing outside of the uterusand unviable. Heres what experts want you to know.
5 min read
In a typical pregnancy, an egg travels from the ovary, through the fallopian tubewhere its fertilizedand down into the uterus, where it attaches into the uterus lining and begins its monthslong process of growing into a fully formed baby before finally going through the birthing process. But, as many expectant parents come to know, all too often pregnancies dont progress typically. Instead, they can end with results like miscarriage and ectopic pregnancies. But while miscarriages may garner the majority of public attention and conversation, ectopic pregnancies are not uncommon. In fact, they happen in roughly 1 out of every 50 pregnancies in the U.S.so its possible that either you or someone you know has had one.
Whats more, this pregnancy complication is a potentially serious one, and, left undiagnosed or without prompt treatment, can result in major internal bleeding which can sometimes be life-threatening. As an OB/GYN, Ive treated this and many other pregnancy complications. Heres what you need to know about ectopic pregnancies:
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What Can Affect A Pregnancy Test Results
Its important to understand when to take a pregnancy test in relation to the day of possible conception. Pregnancy tests measure a hormone known as human chorionic gonadotropin, or hCG, that is produced by the placenta after a fertilized egg attaches to the uterine lining. The levels of hCG increase every single day post-conception so the longer you wait to test, the stronger and more accurate the results will be. Stix can detect hCG at 20mIU/hCG, or about 7 to 10 days after ovulation. For the best results though, we do recommend taking the test at least three days before your missed period or 19 days after you had sex. Additionally, taking a test first thing in the morning before youve had anything to drink will lead to more accurate results as your urine is more concentrated and will likely have higher levels of hCG.
Taking birth control will not affect your chances of getting pregnant after you stop using it, nor will it affect your pregnancy test results when you are using it. The hormones in your birth control wont impact the tests ability to detect the hCG hormone. There are certain medications that may lead to false pregnancy test results, such as fertility treatments. A lot of fertility treatments work by providing synthetic hCG to help with ovulation, which could be mistaken by a pregnancy test as the real hormone.
How Do I Know If Im At Risk Of An Ectopic Pregnancy
There are several risk factors that could increase your chance of developing an ectopic pregnancy. A risk factor is a trait or behavior that increases your chance for developing a disease or condition. You may be at a higher risk of developing an ectopic pregnancy if youve had:
- A previous ectopic pregnancy.
- A history of pelvic inflammatory disease , an infection that can cause scar tissue to form in your fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries and cervix.
- Surgery on your fallopian tubes or on the other organs of your pelvic area.
- A history of infertility.
- An intrauterine device , a form of birth control, in place at the time of conception.
- A history of smoking.
Your risk can also increase as you get older. Women over age 35 are more at risk than younger women.
Many women who experience an ectopic pregnancy dont have any of the above risk factors.
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What Are The Different Types Of Ectopic Pregnancies
Depending on the location, there are two forms of ectopic pregnancy:
- Tubal pregnancy In most ectopic pregnancy instances, the egg implants in the fallopian tube, a condition known as tubal pregnancy, and begins to develop there. Usually, More than 90 percent of ectopic pregnancies occur in the fallopian tubes of a woman.
- Non-tubal Ectopic pregnancy Approximately 2% of all ectopic pregnancies develop in other organs such as the ovary, cervix, or abdominal cavity.
Can I Get Pregnant Again After An Ectopic Pregnancy
Most women who have had an ectopic pregnancy can go on to have future successful pregnancies. There is a higher risk of having future ectopic pregnancies after you have had one. Its important to talk to your healthcare provider about the causes of your ectopic pregnancy and what risk factors you may have that could cause a future ectopic pregnancy.
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Diagnosing An Ectopic Pregnancy
If you suspect you may have an ectopic pregnancy, see your doctor immediately. Ectopic pregnancies cant be diagnosed from a physical exam. However, your doctor may still perform one to rule out other factors.
Another step to diagnosis is a transvaginal ultrasound. This involves inserting a special wand-like instrument into your vagina so that your doctor can see if a gestational sac is in the uterus.
Your doctor may also use a blood test to determine your levels of hCG and progesterone. These are hormones that are present during pregnancy. If these hormone levels start to decrease or stay the same over the course of a few days and a gestational sac isnt present in an ultrasound, the pregnancy is likely ectopic.
If youre having severe symptoms, such as significant pain or bleeding, there may not be enough time to complete all these steps. The fallopian tube could rupture in extreme cases, causing severe internal bleeding. Your doctor will then perform an emergency surgery to provide immediate treatment.
Kidney Stone Disease Treatment & Management
Lets look at the kidney stone treatment and management during pregnancy.
- Conservative managementPatient is advised bed rest, adequate fluid intake, and medications to help manage the disease. Most of the stones pass spontaneously with conservative treatment.
- Invasive treatments?Any type of manipulation in the bladder, pelvis, ureter or kidney could result in premature labor. However, necessary treatments include:
- Stenting – A stent or PCN tube is placed in the ureter. The tube passes the urine lessening the burden on the contraction of the urinary tract. The tube is not removed till end of pregnancy.
- Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy ESWL uses ultrasonic pulses fragment renal stones. It is totally contraindicated during pregnancy as it can cause fetal damage and death though it is highly recommended for non-pregnant women.
- Ureteroscopic Stone Removal – URS is the recommended method for pregnant women where stone removal Is necessary. Holmium is used to fragment stones and is used as an alternative to ESWL.
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy An access tract is created in the renal collecting system. Though its safety and efficacy are well-established for non-pregnant women, it is not recommended during pregnancy reasons include general anesthesia and prolonged prone position.
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What Tests Are Performed
A number of tests can help find duplicated ureters:
- Ultrasound of your kidneys and bladder can show if there is a duplicate system.
- Computed tomography : Multiple scans are assembled into a three-dimensional image of a body structure.
- Magnetic resonance imaging : An injected liquid dye is traced to show how your kidneys and urinary system function.
Can Having An Ectopic Pregnancy Affect Future Fertility
In terms of future fertility, those who experience an ectopic pregnancy shouldnt be too concerned, even if you have a fallopian tube removed. As long as both of the ovaries are still there, and the other tube is healthy, then a woman should still be able to get pregnant with just one fallopian tube.
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What Can Cause False Negative Pregnancy Test
Sudden Drop In Blood Pressure
A sudden drop in blood pressure, along with cold clammy skin and sweating, is a sign of the body going into shock due to heavy internal bleeding due to the rupture of the fallopian tube or wherever the embryo is latched. If this happens, the patient needs immediate medical attention.
Sharp pain in one side of the abdomen, shoulder pain, and suddenly falling blood pressure during pregnancy indicate a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Seek your OB-GYNs help immediately.
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Can I Prevent An Ectopic Pregnancy
An ectopic pregnancy cannot be prevented. But you can try to reduce your risk factors by following good lifestyle habits. These can include not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight and diet, and preventing any sexually transmitted infections . Talk to your healthcare provider about any risk factors you may have before trying to become pregnant.
Symptoms Of An Ectopic Pregnancy
Often, an ectopic pregnancy terminates within a few days of conception, and you may experience only mild symptoms. If it carries on, the early symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy are often same as the signs of a regular pregnancy, such as nausea, breast soreness, and fatigue. If the pregnancy continues longer, theres a risk of rupture of the fallopian tube, and the symptoms are severe. Some of these may resemble those of gastroenteritis, miscarriage, or appendicitis. Heres a look at the more serious symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy:
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What Are The Symptoms Of A Fetal Pelvic Kidney Or Horseshoe Kidney
No symptoms are present in the fetus after birth, one-third of all children diagnosed with this condition do not have any symptoms because the rest of the urinary system has developed normally. However, one-third of all children born with a pelvic kidney have other complications either with their cardiovascular system, the central nervous system or their urinary system. Symptoms directly associated with the horseshoe kidney can include urinary tract infection, kidney stones or hydronephrosis.
Where Does An Ectopic Pregnancy Happen
Its considered an ectopic pregnancy whenever the fertilized egg implants outside of your uterus. The egg is meant to travel down the fallopian tubes and imbed itself into the wall of your uterus, where it can begin to develop. In an ectopic pregnancy, the egg implants in one of the structures along the way. The most common place this can happen is within the fallopian tubes. The majority of ectopic pregnancies happen herecalled a tubal ectopic pregnancy. A fertilized egg can also implant on other organs in your abdominal cavity. This is a rarer form of ectopic pregnancy than one that happens in a fallopian tube.
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Causes Of Antenatal Hydronephrosis In Babies
Sometimes it is not clear why hydronephrosis develops in unborn babies .
It’s thought it often may be caused by an increase in the amount of urine your baby produces in the later stages of pregnancy.
Usually, the kidneys themselves are normal and the condition gets better by itself before or within a few months of birth.
In some cases, it can be caused by:
- Transient dilatation the pregnancy hormones have a relaxing effect on the ureters, this often resolves itself when the baby is born
- vesicoureteral reflux where the valve that controls the flow of urine between the bladder and the ureters does not function properly, allowing urine to flow back up to the kidneys
Babies that are born with ANH may need to be treated with antibiotics to prevent kidney infections, but some problems will get better on their own.
It’s very rare for hydronephrosis in babies and children to be caused by a tumour or kidney stones.
Page last reviewed: 11 December 2021 Next review due: 11 December 2024