Cigarette Smoking And Its Hazards In Kidney Transplantation
Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil
1Diaverum Prince Abdul Majeed Renal Centre, Al Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Jeddah 21146, Saudi Arabia
2RIPAS Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan BA1710, Brunei Darussalam
3Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 25000, Pakistan
4Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
5Northwest General Hospital & Research Centre, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2500, Pakistan
Cigarette smoking is common worldwide, despite the numerous deterrent measures that have been put in place over the decades. The number of smokers reported in 2015 was 1.1 billion . Worldwide, tobacco use causes nearly 6 million deaths per year, and current trends show that tobacco use will cause more than 8 million deaths annually by 2030 . On average, smokers die 10 years earlier than nonsmokers . The association of cigarette smoking with cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancers is well known. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke by 24 times and that of lung cancer by 25 times . Cigarette smoking also causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smokers are 12 to 13 times more likely to die from COPD than nonsmokers . The present review focuses on adverse effects of smoking in normal kidneys, kidney donors, and kidney transplant recipient and effect of kidney transplantation on smoking cessation.
2. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Kidney
Support To Help You Quit
It can be difficult to stop smoking, especially if youve been a smoker for years. But its never too late to stop.
- Speak to your GP or renal nurse if you want help and advice about how to stop smoking.
- You can also find information about treatments available on the NHS to help you stop smoking and lots of practical self-help tips.
Genetic Conditions And Kidney Cancer
Although kidney cancer can run in families, inherited kidney cancers linked to a single, inherited gene are uncommon, accounting for 5% or less of kidney cancers. Over a dozen unique genes that increase the risk of developing kidney cancer have been found, and many are linked to specific genetic syndromes. Most of these conditions are associated with a specific type of kidney cancer .
Finding a specific genetic syndrome in a family can help a person and their doctor develop an appropriate cancer screening plan and, in some cases, help determine the best treatment options. Only genetic testing can determine whether a person has a genetic mutation. Most experts strongly recommend that people considering genetic testing first talk with someone with expertise in cancer genetics, such as a;genetic counselor, who can explain the risks and benefits of genetic testing.
Genetic conditions that increase a person’s risk of developing kidney cancer include:
Other genetic conditions may be associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer. Research to find other genetic causes of kidney cancer is ongoing.
Also Check: Is Watermelon Good For Your Kidneys
Diabetes And Kidney Disease
About 20 to 30 per cent of people with diabetes develop a type of kidney disease called diabetic nephropathy. This is a serious disease and may worsen other diabetic complications such as nerve and eye damage, as well as increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease.;
Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of kidney failure;.;
Hemodynamic Mechanisms As Potential Mediators Of Smoking
BP and heart rate are increased by smoking, which for the major part is due to the action of nicotine . Because increased BP is one of the most important factors promoting progression of CKD, it is likely to play an important role in mediating smoking-induced renal damage. The rise in BP is due to an increase in cardiac output and total peripheral vascular resistance. The BP rise appears immediately and occurs before any increase in circulating catecholamines . Some data implicate an alteration of the diurnal rhythm of BP in smokers . Because alterations of the day/night BP profile do have a notable impact on renal and cardiovascular risk, more data on this issue would be of importance. It is of note that smoking interacts with the effects of some antihypertensive drugs. At least in nonrenal patients, smoking blunts the antihypertensive effect of blockers . Furthermore, in the short term, cigarette smoking blunts the beneficial effect of amlodipine on arterial stiffness .
Also Check: Pineapple For Kidney
Another Danger For Smokers: Kidney Disease
Oct. 16, 2000 — Doctors have known for a while now that smoking may increase the risk of kidney disease in people with diabetes. Now, a study shows that smoking may lead to potentially dangerous changes in kidney function even in otherwise healthy people.
For the study, which appears in the Annals of Internal Medicine, a group of researchers from the Netherlands studied urine and blood samples from more than 7,000 people ages 28 to 75. The participants were divided into three groups: nonsmokers, current smokers, and former smokers .
Compared with nonsmokers, the current and former smokers had higher levels in their urine of a substance called albumin, and their bodies were slower to excrete another substance called creatinine. Higher albumin in urine and delayed creatinine excretion are early signs of abnormal kidney function, but since these conditions don’t usually cause symptoms, most people don’t know they may be starting to have kidney problems.
Other studies have shown that people with diabetes have similar changes in their kidney function if they smoke, but the study authors say their research is the first to demonstrate that smoking can have bad effects on your kidneys even if you have no other diseases. They suggest that certain toxic substances in tobacco smoke may be to blame.
The study, he says, is yet another warning to smokers that continuing their habit is hazardous to their health.
Treatment For Kidney Disease
If detected early enough, the progress of kidney disease can be slowed and sometimes even prevented. In the early stages, changes to diet and medication can help to increase the life of your kidneys.;
If kidney function is reduced to less than 10 per cent of normal, the loss of function must be replaced by dialysis or a kidney transplant. Dialysis is a treatment for kidney failure that removes waste products and extra water from the blood by filtering it through a special membrane .;
Recommended Reading: Is Celery Juice Good For Kidneys
How To Quit Though
Thats the next problem, isnt it? The how.
People, even our own loved ones, usually think, Well, just dont smoke today. That should start you quitting, right? as if its the easiest thing in the world. But former smokers know better.
Thats why the CDC started Tips from Former Smokers, or Tips, its first-ever paid national tobacco education campaign that profiles real people who are living with serious long-term health effects from smoking and secondhand smoke exposure.
Part of the campaigns educational advice is for smokers create a quit plan which, if you are a smoker having difficulties with quitting, you can do with the following steps:
1. Choose your quit date. Smokers usually pick a date within two weeks to quit to have enough time to prepare. You, as a smoker, are advised to choose a date where you wont be busy or tempted to smoke, like night-outs with friends and such.
Encircle your quit date in a calendar and put it where you can see it every day as a reminder.
2. Inform your loved ones. Support from family and friends is always a great help in quitting smoking. Let them know of your quit date and tell them how they can help you with achieving it.
3. Get rid of smoking reminders. Cigarettes, matches, lighters, and ashtrays should be put permanently away from your home or even workspace. Cravings can also be triggered even when you smell cigarettes, so its best to stay away from other smokers, too.
Harmful Effects Of Smoking That Can Damage Your Kidneys
Guest Blog Post by Dr. Nasim Musa Porosh
Smoking can damage nearly every organ in the body, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, eyes, mouth, reproductive organs, bones, bladder, and digestive organs. This article focuses on how smoking affects the blood vessels and urine producing systems of your kidneys, which may lead to long term organ failure.
Uncontrolled or poorly controlled high blood pressure is a leading cause of kidney disease. Smoking slows the blood flow to important organs like the kidneys and can make kidney disease worse.
In addition to tobacco, smoking allows other toxins into the body. According to the American Association of Kidney Patients , studies have shown that smoking is harmful for the kidneys, and can cause kidney disease to progress and increases the risk for proteinuria .
Results from a; study show; that tobacco chewing and cigarette smoking results in chronic inflammatory states, evidenced by increased levels of CRP. It is observed that increased levels of microalbumin, serum urea, serum creatinine in tobacco chewers and smokers.
Don’t Miss: Is Grape Juice Good For Kidney Stones
Smoking And Healthy Kidneys
Even those with healthy kidneys may develop kidney disease while smoking. According to Davita, studies have shown that smokers who do not have kidney disease are still more likely to die from renal failure than those who do not smoke. Smoking reduces blood flow to the kidneys, constricts arteries and blood vessels, and causes extensive damage over time.
Eating Too Many Foods High In Sugar
Sugar contributes to obesity which increases your risk of developing high blood pressure and diabetes, two of the leading causes of kidney disease. In addition to desserts, sugar is often added to foods and drinks that you may not consider sweet. Avoid condiments, breakfast cereals, and white bread which are all sneaky sources of processed sugar. Pay attention to the ingredients when buying packaged goods to avoid added sugar in your diet.
Read Also: Is Grape Juice Good For Kidney Stones
Does Smoking Effect Your Kidneys
Does smoking effect your kidneys
- Does smoking marijuana effect kidney function?
- Background: Few studies have examined the deleterious effect of illicit drug use on kidney function. Methods: Six hundred forty-seven patients enrolled in the Hypertension Clinic of the Veterans Administration Medical Center of New Orleans,
Purpose Of The Kidneys & Possible Causes Of Kidney Disease
For those who dont know, the main purpose of our kidneys is to clean our blood through the removal of excess fluid, minerals, and waste. Our kidneys also help keep the body clean and free from toxic compounds including byproducts accumulated from chemical consumption, digestion, and even muscle activity. Additionally, the kidneys are responsible for maintaining the correct amount of potassium, sodium, salt, phosphorous, and minerals within our bloodstream.
Also Check: What Laxative Is Safe For Kidneys
Smoking And Kidney Medications
Those who already have kidney disease may be required to take ongoing prescription medications to improve or preserve kidney function. Chemicals found in tobacco products may hinder these medications from working properly, according to the National Kidney Foundation. If you are currently taking medication to control renal disease and you also smoke, you should have your progress checked regularly to ensure your medications are remaining effective.
Urine Tests For Kidney Disease
Damaged or inflamed kidneys leak substances such as blood or protein into the urine. The preferred test for detecting protein in the urine is a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio test, which shows the amount of albumin in the urine.;
A urine ACR test should be done at least once a year if the person has diabetes or high blood pressure, and every two years if the person has any of the other identified risk factors for developing chronic kidney disease.
A urine ACR test is performed by sending a sample of your urine to a laboratory for analysis.;
Read Also: Is Grape Juice Good For Kidney Disease
Does Marijuana Affect Kidney Function
- American Society of Nephrology
- In a recent study of healthy young adults, marijuana use was not associated with change in kidney function over time or the appearance of albumin in the urine, which is a sign of kidney damage. Additional studies are needed to assess the effects of marijuana in older adults and patients with kidney disease.
A new study found little evidence that marijuana use affects kidney function in healthy young adults. The analysis appears in an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology .
Because marijuana is becoming increasingly accepted in the United States, there is a critical need for studies examining its risks and benefits. Regarding kidney health, animal studies suggest that marijuana might affect kidney function, but data in humans are limited.
In the first study of its kind, Julie Ishida, MD, MAS and her colleagues examined the potential links between marijuana use and kidney function in healthy young adults. Their analysis included data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, which contained repeated assessments of marijuana use and kidney outcomes.
The team found that at the start of the study, individuals with higher marijuana use had lower kidney function. Upon follow-up, however, marijuana use was not associated with change in kidney function over time or the appearance of albumin in the urine, which is a sign of kidney damage.
Ways To Keep Your Kidneys Healthy
Your kidneys are fist-sized organs located at the bottom of your rib cage, on both sides of your spine. They perform several functions.
Most importantly, they filter waste products, excess water, and other impurities from your blood. These waste products are stored in your bladder and later expelled through urine.
In addition, your kidneys regulate pH, salt, and potassium levels in your body. They also produce hormones that regulate blood pressure and control the production of red blood cells.
Your kidneys are also responsible for activating a form of vitamin D that helps your body absorb calcium for building bones and regulating muscle function.
Maintaining kidney health is important to your overall health and general well-being. By keeping your kidneys healthy, your body will filter and expel waste properly and produce hormones to help your body function properly.
Here are some tips to help keep your kidneys healthy.
You May Like: Is Pomegranate Juice Good For Your Kidneys
Patients With Primary Hypertension Or Primary Renal Disease
It has long been known that smoking is a strong predictor of increased urine albumin in patients with primary hypertension . A recently published prospective 7-yr study that investigated 225 patients found that estimated GFR declined faster in patients with severe as compared with those with mild hypertension, and GFR declined faster in smokers versus nonsmokers, independent of urine albumin/creatinine ratio. Whether smoking also increases the risk for ESRD in these patients is unproved, however: A prospective study including 5730 black and 6182 nonblack hypertensive men aged 52.5 ± 0.2 yr did not find an association between smoking and ESRD during a minimum of 13.9 yr of follow-up .
Taken together, the evidence for smoking as a renal risk factor in patients with primary hypertension or primary renal disease is limited, and the available studies do not provide satisfactory proof for the adverse effect of smoking. More prospective studies are needed to get a definite answer.
The Risks Of Injecting Drugs
Injecting drugs increases an individuals risk of contracting HIV, a virus that compromises the immune system. HIV-associated nephropathy is a kidney disease often seen in intravenous drug users afflicted by HIV 2.
In some cases, this condition can progress to end-stage kidney failure. The prevalence of HIVAN ranges from 3.5% to 12%, depending on the study, and it typically occurs in advanced stages of HIV 11.
Read Also: What Laxative Is Safe For Kidneys
Smoking And Kidney Disease
Smoking can seriously harm the kidneys in a number of ways. It can:
- increase your risk of developing some kidney cancers
- damage your heart and blood vessels , leading to poor blood flow to the kidneys and causing kidney damage over time. Cardiovascular damage can also increase your risk of stroke and heart attack
- help to cause or advance diabetic kidney disease the most common cause of kidney failure.
- it can lead to surges in blood pressure
Kidney disease and its associated complications can kill thats why its so important to stop smoking.
Kidney Disease And Cardiovascular Risks
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in people with chronic kidney disease. Compared to the general population, people with chronic kidney disease are two to three times more likely to have cardiovascular problems such as:
This increased risk is partly caused by factors common to both chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure. However, researchers are discovering that chronic kidney disease is, in itself, an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and a history of cardiovascular disease is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease.;
The kidneys regulate water and salts, remove certain wastes and make various hormones. Kidney disease increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in many ways, including:
Recommended Reading: Constipation And Kidney Stones
What Is The Recommended Dosage Of Cbd
One of the crucial things that you need to note is that you should talk with your doctor when you want to start taking CBD. This is especially true if you have any health conditions or are taking any medications. CBD can interact with certain medications, so its always best to speak with your doctor before starting CBD.
Finding the right dose of CBD may seem daunting, as it affects people differently. Therefore, it is advisable to follow the manufacturers instructions and start low and slow. Note how your body is responding and adjust as needed.