Bacteremia And Infective Endocarditis Native Valve
Uncomplicated bacteremia is defined as positive blood culture results and the following: exclusion of endocarditis no implanted prostheses follow-up blood cultures performed on specimens obtained two to four days after the initial set that do not grow MRSA defervescence within 72 hours of initiating effective therapy and no evidence of metastatic sites of infection. Recommended treatment for adults with uncomplicated bacteremia includes vancomycin or daptomycin at a dosage of 6 mg per kg intravenously once per day for at least two weeks. For adults with complicated bacteremia , four to six weeks of therapy is recommended, depending on the extent of infection. Some experts recommend higher dosages of daptomycin .
Before Taking This Medicine
You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to clindamycin or lincomycin.
To make sure clindamycin is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have ever had:
colitis, Crohn’s disease, or other intestinal disorder
eczema, or allergic skin reaction
asthma or a severe allergic reaction to aspirin
an allergy to yellow food dye.
Animal studies have not shown any harm during pregnancy, but in humans, it is not known whether clindamycin will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.
Clindamycin does pass into breast milk and may cause side effects in the nursing baby. If you are breastfeeding while taking this medicine, call your doctor if your baby has diaper rash, redness or white patches in the mouth or throat, stomach discomfort, or diarrhea that is watery or bloody. Let your doctor know if you are breastfeeding before taking clindamycin.
Clindamycin injection may contain an ingredient that can cause serious side effects or death in very young or premature babies. Do not give this medicine to a child without medical advice.
Outpatient Versus Inpatient Uti Management
Patients who are well appearing, have stable vital signs, are able to maintain oral hydration and comply with oral therapy, and have no significant comorbid conditions can be treated as outpatients with adequate follow-up arranged in 48-72 hours.
If the patient appears toxic, has obstructive uropathy, has stones, is unable to tolerate fluids by mouth, has significant comorbid disease, or otherwise is unable to care for himself at home, inpatient admission is recommended. For example, consider admission for UTI for elderly patients and patients who have diabetes, who are immunocompromised, or who show signs of dehydration, hyperpyrexia, or rigors.
Initial inpatient treatment includes intravenous antimicrobial therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin, such as ceftriaxone a fluoroquinolone, such as ciprofloxacin or an aminoglycoside. Antipyretics, analgesics, and adequate IV fluids to restore appropriate circulatory volume and promote adequate urinary flow are also important.
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What Are The Symptoms Of A Kidney Infection
Symptoms usually develop quickly, over a few hours or so, and may include:
- Pain in a loin or flank. .
- High temperature which may cause shivers.
- Feeling sick and/or being sick .
- Blood in the urine.
- There will also usually be symptoms of a bladder infection – for example, pain on passing urine, and going to the toilet often.
Not all of the symptoms may develop, and sometimes a kidney infection can just cause vague symptoms. For example, just feeling generally unwell but not being able to say why.
In older people a kidney infection may cause confusion. This is why a urine test is often done when an elderly person suddenly becomes confused or appears generally unwell.
When To Seek Medical Attention
Kidney infections are severe conditions that require immediate medical attention. This condition cause long-term kidney damage if left untreated.
Sometimes severe kidney infection causes sepsis, that eventually leads to shock. Thats why kidney infection cannot be allowed to progress further.
Although these natural remedies can help soothe most of the symptoms of kidney infections, youre highly recommended to visit a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.
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Can I Treat A Uti Without Antibiotics
UTI treatment without antibiotics is NOT usually recommended. An early UTI, such as a bladder infection , can worsen over time, leading to a more severe kidney infection . However, a small study has suggested early, mild UTIs might clear up on their own. It’s always best to check with your doctor if you are having UTI symptoms.
Pregnant women should always see a doctor as soon as possible if they suspect they might have a UTI, as this can lead to a greater risk of delivering a low birth weight or premature infant.
How To Prevent Kidney Infection
Some changes in your lifestyle may prevent or reduce the possibility of kidney infection, including:
- Always drink plenty of water.
- Do not store the urine for a long time. Urinate immediately whenever you feel the urge.
- Use lubricated condoms instead of spermicidal ones.
- Maintain proper hygiene of your genital area after urinating and a bowel movement.
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What Should You Know About Clindamycin For Dogs
Clindamycin is prescribed to treat soft tissue infections. This includes bones and teeth. Clindamycin has a relatively limited scope and is usually not given for general infections and is most often prescribed for oral infections, dental diseases, gingivitis, periodontitis, and osteomyelitis, abscesses, deep wounds, pus-filled infections, bite wounds, and bone infections. It can also be given post-surgery, and to treat both pneumonia and respiratory infections.
Clindamycin is a prescription medication, which means it is only legally available via a prescription from a licensed veterinarian. Unlike some medications, Clindamycin is FDA approved for use in dogs and does not need to be prescribed off-label.
In most cases, your vet will need to examine your dog before you receive the prescription. This gives the doctor a chance to observe the dogs overall condition, view the affected area, and rule out any other potential problems.
- Symptoms of a Soft Tissue Infection
Several symptoms might arise when your dog is suffering from a soft tissue infection in his or her mouth. These symptoms include:
- Oral discharge or bleeding
- Difficulty moving around and sitting down
- Soft Tissue Inflammation and Infection in Dogs
Symptoms of stomatitis include:
- Evidence of pain or discomfort in the mouth
- Ulcerated tissue
- Excessive drooling or saliva production
- Fluid buildup around the gums
There are typically four different causes of inflammation in a dogs mouth, including:
Causes Of Urinary Tract Infections In Dogs
Approximately 27% of dogs will develop a urinary tract infection at some point in their life, with a large percentage of those being caused by a bacterial infection. However there are a number of other reasons why your dog may be suffering from the uncomfortable symptoms of a UTI including:
- Viral infection
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What Are The Uses For Oral Clindamycin
- Clindamycin is used for treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible bacteria. It is most often used for treating penicillin–allergic patients or in other situations where penicillin or other alternative antibiotics cannot be used.
- Examples of infections that are treated with clindamycin include:
- Serious respiratory tract infections
- Serious skin and soft tissue infections
- Female pelvic and genital tract infections and ovarian abscess)
Can Urinary Tract Infections Be Prevented Or Avoided
There are many lifestyle choices that can help you prevent UTIs. These are some of the things you can do to protect yourself from them:
- Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. For some people, drinking cranberry juice may also help prevent urinary tract infections. However, if youre taking warfarin, check with your doctor before using cranberry juice to prevent urinary tract infections. Your doctor may need to adjust your warfarin dose or you may need to have more frequent blood tests.
- Dont hold your urine. Urinate when you feel like you need to. Some children dont go to the bathroom often enough. If your child does this, teach him or her to go to the bathroom several times each day.
- Wipe from front to back after bowel movements. Teach your child to wipe correctly.
- Urinate after having sex to help wash away bacteria.
- Use enough lubrication during sex. Try using a small amount of lubricant before sex if youre a little dry.
- If you get urinary tract infections often, you may want to avoid using a diaphragm as a birth control method. Ask your doctor about other birth control choices.
- Avoid taking or giving your child bubble baths.
- Wear loose-fitting clothing , and dress your child in loose-fitting clothing.
- If you are uncircumcised, wash the foreskin regularly. If you have an uncircumcised boy, teach him how to wash his foreskin.
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Antibiotics For A Kidney Infection
Antibiotics are the main treatment for a kidney infection, and are usually the only treatment thats needed.
If your doctor strongly suspects that you have a kidney infection based on your symptoms, you may be immediately prescribed an antibiotic that targets the most common bacteria that cause kidney infections.
Once your lab test results are in, your doctor may adjust your prescription based on the exact type of bacteria causing your infection. These antibiotics may be taken by mouth or IV.
Usually, your symptoms will start to get better within a few days of starting on antibiotics. But even if you feel better, its important to take the full course of antibiotics youve been prescribed.
Depending on the specific drug you take, your course of antibiotics will typically last for 5 to 14 days. Taking the full course ensures that all bacteria causing your infection are eliminated.
Antibiotics used to treat kidney infections include:
Can Kidney Infection Be Prevented
Most kidney infections are caused by germs travelling up from a bladder infection. So the same things that can help to reduce your chances of bladder infection should reduce your chances of kidney infection. Traditionally, people who got recurring urine infections were advised about measures such as drinking plenty of fluid and taking cranberry juice, and on the way that they wiped themselves after going to the toilet. However, there is little evidence for any of these measures and they are now not usually advised. Anything which increases your risk of urine infections which can be treated, should be treated. For example, any constipation should be treated promptly, as constipation can increase your chances of a bladder or kidney infection. See the separate leaflet called Constipation for more details. Doctors will try to treat anything else which might be contributing, such as kidney stones or an abnormality in the structure of the urinary system.
Pregnant women are regularly tested for urine infections and for germs in their urine. Even if they don’t have symptoms, if urine tests positive for germs, pregnant women are usually treated with antibiotics to prevent any complications.
In some cases people who have recurring urine infections are treated with a low dose of antibiotic continually. This may help to prevent recurrences and to prevent spread to the kidney.
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What Bacteria Causes Kidney Infections
The most common bacterium that causes urinary tract infections is Escherichia coli, which you might know better as simply E. coli. Responsible for about 90 percent of all uncomplicated urinary tract infections, E. coli can be found in the colons of humans and animals and in their fecal waste. Bacteria can develop in the urinary tract through the urethra and move into the kidneys, which may lead to kidney infections.
Clindamycin For Bacterial Vaginosis
Bacteria is usually present in the vagina however, an overgrowth of bacteria can cause problems. Bacterial vaginosis is a bacterial infection that affects women of childbearing age.
Bacterial vaginosis is a sexually transmitted disease in which too much of certain bacteria in the vagina changes the normal balance.
Signs of bacterial vaginosis include:
- A thin white or gray vaginal discharge
- Pain, itching, or burning in the vagina
- A strong fish-like odor, especially after sex
- Burning when urinating
- Itching around the outside of the vagina
Clindamycin is an effective treatment for bacterial vaginosis and is commonly prescribed.
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Is Clindamycin Good For Treating A Uti
Is the antibiotic clindamycin effective against a urinary tract infection?
Andrew Weil, M.D. | July 27, 2021
Clindamycin belongs to a class of drugs called lincosamides, which are broad-spectrum antibiotics. This means they target many different types of bacteria, including beneficial microbes in the gut. Wiping out those good bacteria may cause digestive distress and even pave the way for more serious intestinal infections. Powerful broad-spectrum antibiotics are needed for life-threatening infections that dont respond to penicillin, which is less likely to cause digestive upset. But although clindamycin may cure a UTI, its probably more than is required in most instances and may do more harm than good.
Given the potential for harm, and considering the availability of other treatments with lower risk, I dont recommend clindamycin for a typical UTI. Largely due to the overuse of antibiotic therapy, some strains of E. coli have developed resistance to many first-line antibiotics, so it is more important than ever to prevent infections and use natural treatments for them when possible. Warding off an infection before it starts is easier than curing one, so I suggest a few prudent and practical preventive measures:
Andrew Weil, M.D.
Tadesse DA, Zhao S, Tong E, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Animals, United States, 19502002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012 18:741-749. doi:10.3201/eid1805.111153.
Dosage For Injectable Clindamycin
The following table includes the dosages for injectable clindamycin in mg/kg per day and mg per day.
|Children and adolescents
|People older than 16 years
|1520 mg/kg per day in 3 or 4 equal doses
|2040 mg/kg per dayin 3 or 4 equal doses
|6001,200 mg per day in 2, 3, or 4 equal doses
|for more severe infections:
The form and dosage of clindamycin that a doctor prescribes will depend on the infection a person has.
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How Soon Will It Start Working
Once you start taking clindamycin, youll likely notice an improvement in your symptoms after a day or two. If your symptoms arent improving at all or seem to be getting worse after taking clindamycin for a few days, follow up with your healthcare provider.
Make sure you take the full course of antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor, even if you start to feel better before finishing them. Otherwise, you may not kill all of the bacteria, which can lead to recurring infections and antibiotic resistance.
Allergic reactions to clindamycin are rare. If you develop any kind of rash while taking clindamycin, contact your healthcare provider this may be a sign of a drug allergy.
In rare cases, its possible to have a potentially life-threatening reaction called anaphylaxis.
Symptoms typically appear within 30 minutes of taking a drug and can include:
- itchy hives and welts
- swollen throat, which can cause wheezing and trouble with breathing or swallowing
- chest tightness
- passing out
- feelings of doom
While the risk of having an anaphylactic reaction to clindamycin is low, its important to know how to recognize the signs. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
Taking clindamycin can cause a range of side effects, including:
- nausea or vomiting
- loss of appetite
Symptoms of C. diff to watch for include:
- watery diarrhea up to 15 times per day that may contain blood or pus
- severe abdominal pain
Urinary Tract Infection Treatment
If you are a healthy adult man or a woman who is not pregnant, a few days of antibiotic pills will usually cure your urinary tract infection. If you are pregnant, your doctor will prescribe a medicine that is safe for you and the baby. Usually, symptoms of the infection go away 1 to 2 days after you start taking the medicine. Its important that you follow your doctors instructions for taking the medicine, even if you start to feel better. Skipping pills could make the treatment less effective.
Your doctor may also suggest a medicine to numb your urinary tract and make you feel better while the antibiotic starts to work. The medicine makes your urine turn bright orange, so dont be alarmed by the color when you urinate.
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Latest Antibiotics For Utis
- Vabomere is a combination carbapenem antibiotic and beta-lactamase inhibitor. Vabomere was first approved in August of 2017.
- Vabomere is used for the treatment of adult patients with complicated urinary tract infections due to susceptible Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae species complex.
- Vabomere is given as an intravenous infusion every 8 hours. Dosage adjustments are required in patients with varying degrees of kidney impairment.
- Zemdri is an aminoglycoside antibacterial for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis. Zemdri was first approved in February of 2015.
- Zemdri is used against certain Enterobacteriaceae in patients who have limited or no alternative treatment options. Zemdri is an intravenous infusion, administered once daily.
See also: Treatment Options for UTIs
Symptoms Of Kidney Infection
The symptoms of a kidney infection usually start in the bladder or urethra, which spread to one or both of your kidneys.
If not treated properly, the infection can cause permanent damage to your kidney, which can be life-threatening.
The common symptoms of a kidney infection include:
- Abdominal pain.
- An urge to urinate frequently
- Blood in the urine
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How Do I Detox My Kidneys
There is no scientific evidence that kidney cleansing has any effect on kidney health. The best way to detoxify the kidneys is to not toxify them in the first place. Drink plenty of fluids, eat a nutritious diet, avoid processed foods, reduce salt intake, quit smoking, and avoid alcohol, caffeine, and unnecessary medications.