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How They Break Up Kidney Stones

Ureteroscopy With Laser Lithotripsy

A Shocking Way to Break Up Kidney Stones

We will perform ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy while you are under general anesthesia . Over the course of about one hour, we will:

  • Pass a small ureteroscope through your urethra , into your bladder, and up to your stone, either in your ureter or kidney. The scope lets us see your stone without making an incision .*
  • Break your stone into smaller pieces using a small laser fiber, if needed.
  • Remove stone fragments with a small stone basket that we insert through the scope.
  • Place a temporary plastic stent inside the ureter to ensure that any swelling will not block stone fragments that are too small to be basketed or urine from draining. The stent is completely internal and does not require any external parts to collect urine.
  • After a brief observation period, you will be able to go home that same day.

    *Around five percent of the time, the ureter is too narrow for the ureteroscope. If this happens to you, we will leave a stent in place to dilate your ureter. We will reschedule your procedure for two to three weeks later.

    Is It Urgent That The Patient Be Treated With A Procedure Like This

    lf the stone does not pass on its own, it will require treatment. lf you have an infection, severe pain, or if your kidney function is threatened, your doctors will act quickly. lf you only have one kidney or have had a kidney transplant, your stone will be treated more quickly. lf you have large stones or stones in both kidneys, your doctors will not wait to treat you.

    Urinary System Parts And Their Functions:

    • Two kidneys. A pair of purplish-brown organs located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. Their function is to:
    • Remove liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine
    • Keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood
    • Produce erythropoietin, a hormone that aids the formation of red blood cells
    • Regulate blood pressure

    The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.

  • Two ureters. Narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Muscles in the ureter walls continually tighten and relax forcing urine downward, away from the kidneys. If urine backs up, or is allowed to stand still, a kidney infection can develop. About every 10 to 15 seconds, small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters.
  • Bladder. A triangle-shaped, hollow organ located in the lower abdomen. It is held in place by ligaments that are attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder’s walls relax and expand to store urine, and contract and flatten to empty urine through the urethra. The typical healthy adult bladder can store up to two cups of urine for two to five hours.
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    What To Expect During Lithotripsy

    Lithotripsy is usually done on an outpatient basis. This means that youll go to the hospital or clinic on the day of the procedure and leave the same day.

    Before the procedure, you change into a hospital gown and lie on an exam table on top of a soft, water-filled cushion. This is where you remain while the procedure is performed. Youre then given medicine to sedate you and antibiotics to fight infection.

    During lithotripsy, high-energy shock waves will pass through your body until they reach the kidney stones. The waves will break the stones into very small pieces that can easily be passed through your urinary system.

    After the procedure, youll spend about two hours in recovery before being sent home. In some cases, you may be hospitalized overnight. Plan to spend one to two days resting at home after the procedure. Its also a good idea to drink plenty of water for several weeks after lithotripsy. This will help your kidneys flush out any remaining stone fragments.

    How Do Health Care Professionals Treat Kidney Stones

    Kidney Stone Ultrasound Break Up

    Health care professionals usually treat kidney stones based on their size, location, and what type they are.

    Small kidney stones may pass through your urinary tract without treatment. If youre able to pass a kidney stone, a health care professional may ask you to catch the kidney stone in a special container. A health care professional will send the kidney stone to a lab to find out what type it is. A health care professional may advise you to drink plenty of liquids if you are able to help move a kidney stone along. The health care professional also may prescribe pain medicine.

    Larger kidney stones or kidney stones that block your urinary tract or cause great pain may need urgent treatment. If you are vomiting and dehydrated, you may need to go to the hospital and get fluids through an IV.

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    Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Or Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy

    If your stone is large or lithotripsy doesn’t break it up enough, this surgery is an option. PCNL uses a small tube to reach the stone and break it up with high-frequency sound waves.

    You will be given something so that you wonât be awake during this surgery. Your surgeon will make a small cut in your back or side and place a thin scope into the hole.

    The surgery can be done in one of two ways:

    Nephrolithotomy: Your surgeon removes the stone through a tube

    Nephrolithotripsy: Your surgeon uses sound waves or a laser to break up the stone and then vacuums up the pieces with a suction machine.

    The surgery takes 20 to 45 minutes. You’ll typically have to stay in the hospital for a day or two afterward. Usually, a stent will have to stay in your kidney for a few days to help urine drain.

    Your doctor might do an X-ray or ultrasound a few weeks later to see whether any parts of the stone are left. They might also send the stone fragments to a lab to find out what they’re made of.

    Risks from this surgery include:

    • Infection
    • Damage to the bladder, bowel, ureter, kidney, or liver

    Ureteroscopy With Laser Lithotripsy For The Treatment Of Kidney Stones

    Ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy is used to break up kidney stones by that were not passed and remain lodged in the ureter. During this procedure a laser beam is applied directly to the stone to break it into small pieces and passed easily.

    Nearly gone are the days when kidney stone surgery involved actual incisions. Now, with rare exception, kidney stones are managed most commonly with either Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy, or ESWL, or with ureteroscopy.

    Ureteroscopy will be used primarily for stones that are being passed unsuccessfully and are therefore lodged in the ureter, the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. An ureteroscope is a very narrow scope, either rigid or flexible, that allows Urologists to travel up the ureter to the stone and see it on a video monitor via fiberoptics. Here, instead of using sound waves as the energy source to crumble the stone gradually, ureteroscopy uses the energy pulse of a laser beam, applied directly to the stone, to chip it away into tiny pieces. Ureteroscopy is thus more direct, and therefore more successful than ESWL, and there will be fewer stone fragments to pass.

    Uretoroscopy with Laser Lithotripsy

    A: Stone initially visualized through scope. B: Preparing to laser stone. C & D: Laser pulverizing stone. E: Removal of stone fragments with basket. F: Ureter now stone-free.

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    How Successful Is Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    ln those patients who are thought to be good candidates for this treatment, some 50-75% are found to be free of stones within three months of SWL treatment. The highest success rates seem to be in those patients with smaller stones .

    After treatment, some patients may still have stone fragments that are too large to be passed. These can be treated again if necessary with shock waves or with another treatment.

    Ultrasound Probes Have High Success In Breaking Up Kidney Stones

    How to break up a kidney stone with sound waves! Shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in action.

    Newswise When kidney stones become stuck in the urinary tract, the pain can be excruciating and debilitating.

    A relatively new ultrasound probe procedure has the highest success rate for breaking down kidney stones in the lower funnel area of the kidney, rather than the shock wave treatment used for many years, according to a review of studies. However, the reviewers caution that the studies were small, comprising only 214 patients, and the study methodology was of low quality.

    The review appears in the latest issue of The Cochrane Library, a publication of The Cochrane Collaboration, an international organization that evaluates medical research. Systematic reviews like this one draw evidence-based conclusions about medical practice after considering both the content and quality of existing medical trials on a topic.

    The authors looked at the effectiveness of three minimally invasive procedures: the older treatment, called extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy the ultrasound procedure, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retrograde intrarenal surgery , which uses a fiber-optic endoscope.

    ESWL, which has been in use since 1980, sends shock waves directly to the kidney stone to break it up so it can pass through the urinary tract.

    The RIRS procedure involves a fiber-optic endoscope placed through the urethra and into the bladder. The scope locates stones, which the clinician can then disintegrate with an ultrasound probe.

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    What To Expect At Home

    It is normal to have a small amount of blood in your urine for a few days to a few weeks after this procedure.

    You may have pain and nausea when the stone pieces pass. This can happen soon after treatment and may last for 4 to 8 weeks.

    You may have some bruising on your back or side where the stone was treated if sound waves were used. You may also have some pain over the treatment area.

    What Happens On Surgery Day

    Your surgeon will give you specific instructions on what to do with your medications and diet before the date of your procedure. Most laser kidney stone treatments are done on an outpatient basis, so you can go home the same day.

    You will have general anesthesia, so you will sleep through surgery. This helps make sure that you are still when the small instruments are inside your body. Newer lasers are precise and powerful which can make it easier for the surgeon to control and fragment the stone. This helps reduce the time of your surgery, so you can spend less time asleep and get back to your normal routine faster.

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    How Will I Feel After Surgery

    You may still experience pain after laser surgery. If you have a stent between the kidney and ureter, most pain will likely come from the stent because it can rub on the kidney or bladder. It also can make you feel like you have to urinate, and it may cause some blood in the urine. Men may have pain in the penis or testicles as well.

    Your doctor will prescribe medications after surgery. Generally, these may include an antibiotic to prevent infection, pain medication, and perhaps something to treat bladder spasms and burning with urination.

    Drink plenty of water to lubricate the stent and encourage any small stones to move out of the kidney. You will likely feel a more frequent urge to urinate, so you may want to stay close to a bathroom.

    You can resume normal activities the next day, or as soon as you feel comfortable. Skip high-intensity workouts until after your stent is removed. Some pain medications restrict activities like driving, so check the warnings on the label. Your doctor will have additional recommendations for you to follow.

    How To Break Up Calcium Kidney Stones

    The Surprise No One Wants: What Causes Kidney Stones?

    Ultrasound is sometimes used to break up kidney stones so that they pass.

    and yogurt are great sources of calcium, which is essential to.

    2018, gpGrouper: A Peptide Grouping Algorithm for Gene-Centric Inference and Quantitation of Bottom-Up Proteomics Data.

    beta2-Adrenergic receptor activation mobilizes intracellular calcium via a.

    There will be some people who will break through and have that infection.

    care providers about COVID-19 vaccines and clear up the misinformation about these potentially lifesaving shots.

    In this interview, Caleb Nelson, MD, PhD, discusses the current state of evaluation and treatment of stones in pediatric.

    There are four kinds of kidney stones: calcium, uric acid, struvite,

    stones because it contains citric acid, which can break down small kidney stones.

    May 17, 2021 · One of the best and easiest ways to prevent kidney stones is to drink plenty of water. Generally, health experts recommend drinking about 12 glasses per day to help flush stones out of the urinary system. Sipping water throughout the day will help people stay hydrated and reduce their risk of kidney stone formation.

    Is There A Medication To Break Up Kidney Stones Shock Wave Lithotripsy is the most common treatment for kidney stones in the U.S. Shock waves from outside the body are targeted at a kidney stone. Jan 15, 2020. A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. One or more stones can be in the. There are different types of

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    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    Extracorporeal is the most common and widely used form of lithotripsy. During this non-invasive procedure, a fluoroscopic x-ray imaging system or an ultrasound imaging system is first used to pinpoint the stones’ location. A water-filled cushion or “coupling device” is either placed on the patients abdomen or, more often, under his back at kidney level, then high-energy shock waves generated outside the body are directed through the cushion, fragmenting the stones into pieces small enough to pass during urination.

    What to Expect with ESWL

    The procedure typically takes between 45 and 60 minutes and can cause some pain, so patients are typically given either local or general anesthesia. Depending on the type of anesthesia used, patients may feel the shock waves, which some liken to a tapping sensation or an elastic band reverberating off of the skin.

    Following the ESWL Procedure

    After the procedure is over, patients can expect to remain in recovery for up to two hours. Provided there are no complications, many will be able to go home the same day.

    Because there is a risk of infection from bacteria released from the stones, it is common for physicians to prescribe a course of antibiotics. Doctors also recommend that people recovering from ESWL drink plenty of water to help lubricate the stones as they pass and lessen discomfort. Following treatment, it is normal to have blood in the urine as well as some abdominal pain.

    Is ESWL Right for You?

    How Well Does ESWL Work?

    How Large Kidney Stones Are Treated

    There are several methods for breaking down or removing large kidney stones, whether minimally invasive or surgically.


    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is an outpatient procedure that requires either light sedation or anesthesia and usually lasts between 45 minutes and an hour. A lithotripsy uses shock waves that work to break up the kidney stone into much smaller pieces that will pass more easily through the urinary tract.

    A ureteroscopy is generally an outpatient procedure that is performed under anesthesia. During this procedure, the surgeon will insert an ureteroscope through the urethra and bladder to the ureters. The ureteroscope is a thin, lighted, tube-like instrument with an eyepiece that allows the urologist to see the kidney stone. Once located, it can be retrieved or broken into smaller pieces using laser energy.

    Sometimes, the surgeon will choose to place a stent in the ureter . If placed, it will be removed in approximately four to 10 days during an office visit.

    Surgical removal

    Depending on its size and location, the urologist may choose to perform a Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy . This procedure requires general anesthesia, and may require an overnight stay in the hospital.

    Contact Urology Austin to schedule an appointment at the location nearest you.

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    Where Do Kidney Stones Come From

    Kidney stones form develop when certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, become concentrated enough to form crystals in your kidneys. The crystals grow larger into “stones.” About 80% to 85% of kidney stones are made of calcium. The rest are uric acid stones, which form in people with low urine pH levels.

    After stones form in the kidneys, they can dislodge and pass down the ureter, blocking the flow of urine. The result is periods of severe pain, including flank pain , sometimes with blood in the urine, nausea, and vomiting. As the stones pass down the ureter toward the bladder, they may cause frequent urination, bladder pressure, or pain in the groin.

    “If you experience any of these symptoms, see your primary care physician,” says Dr. Eisner. “He or she will likely perform a urinalysis and a renal ultrasound, abdominal x-ray, or CT scan to confirm kidney stones are the source of your pain and determine their size and number.”

    How Does Lithotripsy Work

    How To Break Up Kidney Stones Relief Pain Fast Without Surgery Naturally At Home

    Lithotripsy uses sound waves to break up large kidney stones into smaller pieces. These sound waves are also called high-energy shock waves. The most common form of lithotripsy is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy .

    Extracorporeal means outside the body. In this case, it refers to the source of the shock waves. During ESWL, a special machine called a lithotripter generates the shock waves. The waves travel into your body and break apart the stones.

    ESWL has been around since the early 1980s. It quickly replaced surgery as the treatment of choice for larger kidney stones. ESWL is a noninvasive procedure, which means it doesnt require surgery. Noninvasive procedures are generally safer and easier to recover from than invasive procedures.

    Lithotripsy takes about 45 minutes to an hour to perform. Youll likely be given some form of anesthesia so you dont experience any pain.

    After the procedure, stone debris is removed from your kidneys or ureter, the tube leading from your kidney to your bladder, through urination.

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