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Does High Blood Pressure Cause Kidney Damage

What Is Normal Blood Pressure

Kidneys and High Blood Pressure: Dr. Michael Roizen, Cleveland Clinic Chief Wellness Officer

Blood pressure normally varies a lot, from minute to minute and even from one breath to the next. It is usually lower at night, and goes up with exercise and other forms of stress . It also varies around the body.

For most purposes, it is best to measure blood pressure in the upper arm, at heart level, with the person sitting comfortably, not talking, having rested for at least five minutes and avoided cigarettes and caffeine for at least 30 minutes. Measured like this, a normal adults blood pressure is around 120/80 mm Hg.

Blood pressure is often measured in a rush in outpatient clinics, without much time for rest, and often at a time of increased anxiety. Measurements taken like this shouldnt be used as the sole basis for deciding on treatment. Repeated measurements at home or ambulatory blood pressure measurements give a much better idea.

  • Your blood pressure is considered to be high if your blood pressure is 140/90mmHg or above, and your average daytime ambulatory or home blood pressure is 135/85mmHg or above.
  • The higher your resting blood pressure, the higher your risk of heart disease, stroke, and progressive kidney damage.

There is often no obvious cause for hypertension but some groups, for example people from minority ethnic groups are more prone to developing high blood pressure.

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Can Medicines Help Control Blood Pressure

Many people need medicine to control high blood pressure. Several effective blood pressure medicines are available. The most common types of blood pressure medicines doctors prescribe are diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers , beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers. Two of these medicines, the ACE inhibitors and ARBs, have an added protective effect on the kidneys. Studies have shown that ACE inhibitors and ARBs reduce proteinuria and slow the progression of kidney damage. Diuretics, also known as “water pills,” help a person urinate and get rid of excess fluid in the body. A combination of two or more blood pressure medicines may be needed to keep blood pressure below 130/80.

Can High Blood Pressure Cause Kidney Disease

Kidneys use blood vessels to clean your blood of wastes, toxins and excess fluid. High blood pressure means that high pressure is consistently being exerted against the walls of arteries throughout the body, which can damage blood vessels over time. Damage to blood vessels, including the hardening and narrowing of arteries around the kidneys, can prevent your kidneys from cleaning bloodeventually leading to kidney disease.

Kidney disease or kidney failure due to high blood pressure may take years to develop. If you are diagnosed with kidney disease, its important to know that there are things you can do to manage CKD and thrive.

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How Does High Blood Pressure Hurt My Kidneys

High blood pressure makes your heart work harder and, over time, can damage blood vessels throughout your body. If the blood vessels in your kidneys are damaged, they may stop removing wastes and extra fluid from your body. The extra fluid in your blood vessels may then raise blood pressure even more. It’s a dangerous cycle. High blood pressure is one of the leading causes of kidney failure, also commonly called end-stage renal disease . People with kidney failure must either receive a kidney transplant or go on dialysis. Every year, high blood pressure causes more than 25,000 new cases of kidney failure in the United States.

How Can High Blood Pressure Affect Your Kidneys

How high blood pressure damages your body?

The human body is a good machine where your kidneys are one of the primary biological systems working round the clock without any gap. Your kidneys filter 200 liters of blood from chemical toxins and pollutants needed to be flushed out from the body in time. Your renal functions and circulatory system have got each others back for keeping you in good health.

Your kidneys filter excessive substances out from your body utilizing blood vessels for completing this process. When blood tubules are damaged, the nephrons inside the kidneys dont get sufficient nutrients and oxygen supply and stop functioning.

High blood pressure happens when a high volume of blood is flown through the blood pressure with speed, causing damage to the arteries around your kidneys.

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What Is High Blood Pressure

Your heart pumps blood through tubes called your arteries and veins. This causes pressure inside of these tubes, which is called blood pressure. Checking your blood pressure tells you how hard your heart is working to pump your blood.

Blood pressure that is too high means your heart is working too hard to pump your blood. This can harm your body, including your kidneys.

The Link Between High Blood Pressure And Kidney Health

High blood pressure increases the risk of developing kidney disease and causing permanent damage to your kidneys. Damaged kidneys cannot filter blood as well as they should. As a result, excess fluid and waste from the blood remain in the body and may cause other health problems. Controlling your blood pressure can help prevent kidney disease, or help keep it from getting worse.

What Is High Blood Pressure?

Blood pressure is the measurement of the force of blood against your artery walls as it flows through your body. High blood pressure, also called hypertension, means the force against your artery walls is consistently too high.

Blood pressure readings use two numbers. Systolic measures how much pressure your blood is exerting when your heart beats. Diastolic measures how much pressure your blood is exerting when your heart is between beats. Blood pressure readings are typically expressed as systolic over diastolic.

High blood pressure is typically 130 or higher systolic pressure and 80 or higher diastolic pressure.

How Do Your Kidneys Work?

  • Damaged kidneys fail to regulate blood pressure. Healthy kidneys produce a hormone called aldosterone to help the body regulate blood pressure. Kidney damage and uncontrolled high blood pressure each contribute to a negative spiral. As more arteries become blocked and stop functioning, the kidneys eventually fail.

Protect Your Kidneys by Managing Your Blood Pressure

  • Eat a healthy, low-salt diet

  • Do regular physical activity

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Fda Panel Member Cheered By Pfizer News On Covid Vaccine In Kids

A new study suggests for the first time that cytomegalovirus , a common viral infection affecting between 60 percent and 99 percent of adults worldwide, is a cause of high blood pressure, a leading risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease.

The study, led by researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and published in the May 15 issue of PLoS Pathogens, further demonstrates that when coupled with other risk factors for heart disease, the virus can lead to the development of atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries.

CMV infects humans all over the world, explains co-senior author Clyde Crumpacker, an investigator in the Division of Infectious Diseases at BIDMC and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. This new discovery may eventually provide doctors with a whole new approach to treating hypertension, with antiviral therapies or vaccines becoming part of the prescription.

A member of the herpes-virus family, CMV affects all age groups and is the source of congenital infection, mononucleosis, and severe infection in transplant patients. By the age of 40, most adults will have contracted the virus, though many will never exhibit symptoms. Once it has entered the body, CMV is usually there to stay, remaining latent until the immune system is compromised, when it then re-emerges.

What Are The Symptoms Of High Blood Pressure And Kidney Disease

How Long Does It Take High Blood Pressure To Damage Kidneys?

Most people with high blood pressure do not have symptoms. In rare cases, high blood pressure can cause headaches.

Early CKD also may not have symptoms. As kidney disease gets worse, some people may have swelling, called edema. Edema happens when the kidneys cannot get rid of extra fluid and salt. Edema can occur in the legs, feet, ankles, orless oftenin the hands or face.

Symptoms of advanced kidney disease can include

  • loss of appetite, nausea, or vomiting
  • drowsiness, feeling tired, or sleep problems
  • headaches or trouble concentrating
  • chest pain or shortness of breath

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Understanding The Link Between Hypertension And Kidney Disease

The kidneys play an essential role in the human body. They act as filters for the blood, removing toxins and regulating fluids to prevent excessive buildup. Healthy kidneys also keep the blood pressure at a healthy level. Blood pressure refers to the force of blood being pushed against blood vessels as it moves through the body. When the blood pressure is high, the force, or pressure, of the blood pushed against the blood vessels increases. High blood pressurealso called hypertensioncan constrict and narrow the blood vessels in the kidneys. When this happens, the kidneys may no longer be able to function properly. If the kidneys arent doing their job, the excess fluid will not be removed from the blood if the excess fluid is not removed from the blood, the blood pressure will continue to rise.

Theres a significant link between hypertension and kidney disease. Basically, high blood pressure damages the kidneys, and damaged kidneys lead to higher blood pressure resulting in a concerning cycle. In fact, hypertension is the second leading cause of kidney failure, second only to diabetes. That being said, its important to note that hypertension can be both a cause and a result of kidney disease.

How Can I Prevent Or Slow The Progression Of Kidney Disease From High Blood Pressure

The best way to slow or prevent kidney disease from high blood pressure is to take steps to lower your blood pressure. These steps include a combination of medicines and lifestyle changes, such as

  • being physically active
  • managing stress
  • following a healthy diet, including less sodium intake

No matter what the cause of your kidney disease, high blood pressure can make your kidneys worse. If you have kidney disease, you should talk with your health care professional about your individual blood pressure goals and how often you should have your blood pressure checked.

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Ways To Lower Your Blood Pressure

Lowering your blood pressure will help you avoid kidney damage and may slow the progression of kidney disease if you already have it. These steps can help protect your kidneys:

  • Improve your diet: Limit sugary snacks, junk food, high-sodium foods and foods that contain saturated fats. Make sure your diet includes a healthy mix of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products and fish, poultry and lean meats.

  • Lose weight: Excess weight stresses your heart and may raise your blood pressure. Losing even a few pounds may help lower your pressure.

  • Exercise more: Exercise is an excellent, inexpensive way to keep your blood pressure under control. The American Heart Association® recommends 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity each week or 75 minutes of vigorous activity for adults, as well as 2 muscle-strengthening sessions per week.

  • Relax: Stress also plays a role in high blood pressure. Any activity that reduces stress, whether its exercise, yoga or reading a good book, will help you protect your heart and kidneys.

  • Stop smoking: Smoking may narrow your blood vessels, increasing your blood pressure. If youve been thinking about giving up smoking, nows the perfect time to stop. Learn about our Smoking Cessation Program.

  • How High Blood Pressure Causes Kidney Damage

    Do you know High Blood Pressure leads To Kidney Failure ...

    High blood pressure doesnt just increase your risk of heart attack, heart failure, and stroke. It can also damage your kidneys.

    This limits their ability to filter waste and toxins, as well as balance the amount of fluids, hormones, sodium, and other minerals in your blood. Your heart and kidneys work together, which is why your blood pressure can affect both.

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    Renal Hypertension/renal Vascular Disease

    Approximately five percent of people with hypertension or high blood pressure suffer from renal or renovascular hypertension, caused by narrowing or blockage in the arteries to the kidneys. With this blockage, the kidneys see a reduction of blood pressure and compensate for it by causing a rise in overall blood pressure, resulting in systemic hypertension. Early in its course, this hypertension can be treated with medication. However, as the blockage worsens, hypertension may become severe and difficult to control, even with multiple medications. Furthermore, it may result in sudden spikes in blood pressure, which can be extremely dangerous. In these cases, treatment of the underlying blockage may help eliminate or significantly reduce the hypertension to allow better control with fewer medications.

    Hypertension itself can have a devastating effect on the kidneys . Exposure to abnormally high blood pressure over time will lead to kidney damage and a reduction in its ability to function normally. Because damage to the kidneys may not show up on routine blood tests until it is severe and possibly irreversible, early diagnosis and treatment are critical to protecting renal function.

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    How Does High Blood Pressure Affect The Kidneys

    High blood pressure can constrict and narrow the blood vessels, which eventually damages and weakens them throughout the body, including in the kidneys. The narrowing reduces blood flow.

    If your kidneys blood vessels are damaged, they may no longer work properly. When this happens, the kidneys are not able to remove all wastes and extra fluid from your body. Extra fluid in the blood vessels can raise your blood pressure even more, creating a dangerous cycle, and cause more damage leading to kidney failure.

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    Is Surgery Necessary To Treat Renal Hypertension

    If the condition does not improve with medication and/or angioplasty, or the narrowing recurs or cannot be stented for any reason, renal bypass surgery may be an option. By taking a vein or synthetic tube to connect your kidney to your aorta, the surgeon creates an alternate route, or bypass, for blood to flow around the blocked artery into your kidney. This procedure is complex and high risk and rarely used.

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    High Blood Pressure and Your Kidneys – A to Z Guide

    Angioplasty and stenting have not been shown to be better than controlling blood pressure with medications. This is because, in most people, renal artery stenosis may be present but does not cause high blood pressure. In such cases, opening up the artery will not result in improved blood pressure.

    It is suggested that this procedure be reserved for those whose blood pressure cannot be controlled by medications, who experience unacceptable side effects with their blood pressure medications, who developed rapidly worsening kidney function or who have a rapid build-up of fluid in their lungs called flash pulmonary edema.

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    What Symptoms Or Signs Are Seen With Renal Hypertension

    Although renal hypertension is hard to diagnose and usually has no symptoms, be aware of these signs:

    • High blood pressure that is not controlled on three or more medications at their maximum doses, including a diuretic.
    • High blood pressure at a young age.
    • Stable high blood pressure that suddenly gets worse or is difficult to control.
    • Kidneys that are not working well, which may occur suddenly.
    • Narrowing of other arteries in the body, such as to the legs, the brain, the eyes and elsewhere.
    • Sudden buildup of fluid inside the lungs, called pulmonary edema.

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    Treating High Blood Pressure When You Have Kidney Disease

    High blood pressure, or hypertension, is one of the leading causes of kidney disease. Many people with high blood pressure need medicine to help lower blood pressure, which also helps to slow the progression of kidney disease. Two groups of medicines that lower blood pressure are:

    • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorsAngiotensin II is a chemical in the body that narrows blood vessels by making the muscles around the blood vessels contract. It creates a chemical called angiotensin I. ACE inhibitors prevent angiotensin I from creating angiotensin II. This helps the muscles around the blood vessels relax and enlarges the blood vessels, which reduces blood pressure.
    • Angiotensin receptor blockers ARBs block angiotensin II from causing the muscles around the blood vessels to contract and make the blood vessels smaller. ARBs protect the blood vessels from the effects of angiotensin II so that blood pressure stays in a safe range.

    ACE inhibitors and ARBs lower blood pressure, which also helps to slow kidney damage. Some people may need to take a combination of two or more blood pressure medicines to stay below 130/80.

    What medicines treat high blood pressure?

    Type of drug

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    How Does Eating Diet And Nutrition Affect High Blood Pressure And Kidney Disease

    Following a healthy eating plan can help lower your blood pressure. Reducing the amount of sodium in your diet is an important part of any healthy eating plan. Your health care professional may recommend the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan. DASH focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods that are healthy for your heart and lower in sodium, which often comes from salt. The DASH eating plan

    • is low in fat and cholesterol
    • features fat-free or low-fat milk and dairy products, fish, poultry, and nuts
    • suggests less red meat, sweets, added sugars, and sugar-containing beverages
    • is rich in nutrients, protein, and fiber

    A registered dietitian can help tailor your diet to your kidney disease. If you have congestive heart failure or edema, a diet low in sodium intake can help reduce edema and lower blood pressure. Reducing saturated fat and cholesterol can help control high levels of lipids, or fats, in the blood.

    People with advanced kidney disease should speak with their health care professional about their diet.


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