Vitamin D: Can You Have Too Much Of A Good Thing In Chronic Kidney Disease
- Howard A. MorrisCorrespondenceSchool of Pharmacy and Medical Science University of South Australia, North Terrace Adelaide South Australia 5000 AustraliaSchool of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia Adelaide South Australia AustraliaChemical Pathology, SA Pathology Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol.Kidney Int.
Clin Biochem Rev.
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The Best Vitamins And Supplements To Support The Kidneys
Our kidneys we are born with two of them play several key roles in helping us to maintain a healthy body. Not the least of these important functions is ridding our bodies of toxins and waste matter they even play a role in regulating blood pressure. The kidneys are bean-shaped you know, like the popular, backyard kidney-shaped swimming pools and found near the posterior side of the abdomen.
An injury, disease-induced damage, or ingested chemical pollutants affecting the kidneys can endanger their health, as well as renal function, per livestrong.com. Thats why certain vitamins, supplements, and foods should be kept handy to maintain and, when necessary, restore kidney health but all with a physicians guidance.
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Which Supplements Will I Need To Take
Depending on your health and other factors, your healthcare provider may recommend some of the following supplements:
- B Complex: B complex vitamins are grouped together, but each has a different job to do.
- One of the important functions of vitamin B6, B12 and folic acid is to work together with iron to prevent anemia. If you have anemia, it means you do not have enough red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to all parts of your body.
- Additional B vitamins, called thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid and niacin, can also be given as a supplement. These vitamins help to change the foods you eat into energy your body can use.
Eating Healthily And Monitoring Your Diet
An unhealthy diet high in sugar and sodium can damage much more than your waistline, as overweight or obese people are at much higher risk of diabetes, heart disease and kidney disease. In order to support healthy kidneys, you should try to eat a low sodium diet with plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables such as whole grains, blueberries, and fish.
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Talk To Your Doctor Before Taking Any Over
Because CKD can change the way your body processes certain substances, its important to talk to your doctor about any over-the-counter medication, vitamins, or supplements that youre takingwhether its something new or something youve been taking regularly. Certain medications and even herbal substances can be harmful at any stage of CKD. Talking to your doctor can help ensure that youre protecting your kidney health.
The Best Vitamins For Kidney Health
When looking to keep your kidneys healthy, vitamins are a great way to supplement your diet and maintain your kidney function. Kidney disease can lead to many different complications. Incorporating vitamins in your diet is a great way to mitigate kidney problems and maintain your overall health. Taking vitamins may be just the thing you need to improve your kidney health and get back to a lifestyle you love.
*Always speak with your healthcare provider before taking any new vitamins.
When it comes to taking supplements for kidney health, not all vitamins are equal. Vitamins you should avoid taking may include vitamins with minerals that may cause kidney stones or vitamins that contain potassium. For example, If you have kidney disease, high doses of vitamin C may do more harm than good. This is because vitamin C may cause oxalate buildup, a compound that may lead to kidney stones.
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Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid
Vitamin C is best known for its immune boosting properties and is often marketed as such. While vitamin C does help to support the immune system by acting as an antioxidant, many dont know the other critical roles it plays in the body.
Beyond being a strong antioxidant, vitamin C also assists in wound healing through collagen production and helps to maximize iron absorption in the body.
Forms of Vitamin C
When looking for supplements, you will likely see vitamin C have ascorbic acid written below it or on the ingredients list. Ascorbic acid is the same form of vitamin C you would find in your orange juice.
Other forms of vitamin C, though less common, are sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate.
Although, if you are buying kidney-specific renal vitamins, you will probably find that they contain little to none vitamin C content. The next section explains why.
Recommended Intake and Deficiency
The recommended daily allowance for vitamin C is 75mg per day for men 14-18 years and 90mg for men 19 years and older. For women, its 65mg ages 14-18 years and 75mg 19 years and older.
Vitamin C deficiency is uncommon in the US and has rarely been seen in any developed country since the 18th century.
Severe vitamin C deficiency presents itself as scurvy. The most notable sign of scurvy is bleeding and inflammation of the gums. Other symptoms include poor wound healing, joint pain, petechiae, and loosening or loss of teeth.
Tolerable Upper Level Intake
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Vitamins And Minerals In Kidney Disease
Vitamins and minerals are important for everyones good health. If you have CKD and/or if you are receiving dialysis, you may need to know which vitamins and minerals you can take in the form of supplements.
WHAT ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS?
Vitamins and minerals are substances needed by your body to help carry out special functions. Examples of vitamins are A, B, C, D and E. Examples of minerals are zinc, iron and copper. They help your body use the foods you eat. They are needed to make energy for cells and promote growth and repair body tissues. Chronic kidney disease changes your bodys need for certain vitamins and minerals.
WILL I NEED TO TAKE VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS?
Almost all vitamins and minerals come from the foods you eat. Your body does not make these substances. People with healthy kidneys who eat a variety of foods from all the food groups can get lots of vitamins and minerals. Your kidney diet limits some food groups therefore, you may not be getting all the vitamins and minerals you need each day. It may be important for you to take certain amounts of some vitamins and minerals in the form of supplements.
WHY DO I NEED DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF VITAMINS AND MINERALS?
Having chronic kidney disease changes your need for some nutrients. Some of the reasons are listed below:
WHAT SUPPLEMENTS WILL I NEED TO TAKE?
Your doctor will probably want you to take a group of vitamins called B complex as well as some vitamin C. A prescription for these may be necessary.
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Why Do I Need Different Amounts Of Vitamins And Minerals
Having chronic kidney disease changes your need for some nutrients. Some of the reasons are:
- The waste products that build up in your body each day can change the way your body uses vitamins and minerals.
- Some of the medicines you take can change the way your body uses certain vitamins and minerals.
- Some vitamins are lost during dialysis treatment if you are on dialysis.
- Following a special diet for chronic kidney disease can mean you miss certain vitamins and minerals from foods.
- On days when you may not feel well enough to eat regular meals, you may not get enough daily vitamins and minerals.
Antifibrotic Effects Of Vitamin D And Its Analogues
A recent study showed that Wnt/-catenin signaling, which can be inhibited by paricalcitol treatment, plays a critical role in promoting proteinuria and renal fibrosis . Interestingly, our in vitro data indicate that the -catenin signaling pathway may mediate 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal -induced renal tubular EMT, which can be effectively inhibited by paricalcitol-induced VDR/-catenin complex formation in human proximal tubular epithelial cells . Paricalcitol inhibits -catenin-mediated gene transcription by inducing VDR, resulting in sequestration of -catenin transcriptional activity in the nuclei. Overall, the literature has demonstrated that active vitamin D and its analogues can ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis or glomerulosclerosis.
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Do Ckd Patients Need Vitamins And Minerals
Your need for some nutrients changes when you have CKD. The waste buildup in your body and your medication can change the way your body uses vitamins and minerals. With a decline in kidney function, your body can no longer absorb and process foods properly. Following a CKD-friendly diet can also mean you miss out on certain vitamins and minerals from specific food groups. On days when you have a low appetite, you may not get the right amounts of vitamins and minerals for your daily needs. CKD can even change the bodyâs abilities to produce vitamins such as vitamin D. Moreover, if you are going through dialysis, you may lose some vitamins during the treatment.
Exercise And Kidney Health
Research has demonstrated several benefits of physical activity for individuals with CKD. A recent meta-analysis found that aerobic exercise is associated with improved cardiorespiratory function, exercise duration, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and quality of life in patients with CKD. Physical activity can also contribute to prevention by improving metabolic risk factors, which may protect kidney function.
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Best Supplements To Boost Kidney Function
The kidneys are one of the most important organs in our body as they help in clearing toxins, wastes and also help regulate blood pressure. Kidneys may be damaged by injury, hypertension or diabetes resulting in serious conditions and hence its always important to keep your kidney health at its best.
Potassium Fluid And Blood Pressure
Potassium is an electrolyte mineral that plays an important role in maintaining fluid balance, as it helps keep the right amount of fluid inside and outside of your cells. In healthy people, there’s also an association between higher intakes of potassium and low blood pressure. High blood pressure is one of the leading causes of chronic kidney failure, according to the National Kidney Foundation. The theory is that getting more potassium in your diet increases sodium excretion in your urine, which helps lower blood pressure. Bananas, potatoes, oranges, leafy greens and milk are all good sources of this kidney-protecting mineral.
When kidney disease develops though, the kidneys aren’t able to filter toxins and other substances as efficiently. As a result, people with kidneys problems may have to limit how much potassium they consume.
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Staying Fit And Physically Active
Regular exercise has been shown to improve almost every aspect of health, from reducing blood pressure to improving mental health, but thankfully you dont have to run marathons to benefit: Even low-impact exercise like walking and dancing are good for your health, so find an activity that keeps you active and having fun and stop worrying about what vitamins are good for kidneys.
Vitamin B Pantothenic Acid
Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B, assists in the process of creating and breaking down fatty acids. Making these fatty acids is essential for humans and helps us create our own cholesterol, store energy, and more.
Forms of Pantothenic Acid
About 85% of pantothenic acid in food is in the form of CoA or phosphopantetheine. Your body then breaks it down and shifts around the molecules to create a usable form for itself to help carry out necessary bodily functions.
The good bacteria in your gut, known as the microbiome, also create pantothenic acid but not in significant amounts.
Some dietary supplements contain pantethine, which is a byproduct of pantothenic acid and is commonly marketed as a way to lower cholesterol.
Recommended Intake and Deficiency
The adequate intake for pantothenic acid for adult men and women 14 years and older is 5mg per day. Since pantothenic acid is found in such a wide range of foods, deficiency is uncommon, especially in the US.
Deficiency is mostly reserved to those who are experiencing overall severe malnutrition and is accompanied by other vitamin and mineral deficiencies. A deficiency presents itself with numbness and burning in extremities, headache, fatigue, and irritability.
Tolerable Upper Level Intake
Drug-Nutrient Interactions with Pantothenic Acid
Pantothenic acid may alter the effects of the medications listed below. Consult with your doctor before beginning a new supplement routine.
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Incidence Of Hypercalcemia And Hyperphosphatemia
Of the 17 observational studies, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia incidence were reported in nine and six studies, respectively. Of the nine studies that reported hypercalcemia details, only three studies provided the definition of hypercalcemia, and the definitions varied among the studies. Similarly, only three of six studies that reported hyperphosphatemia provided the definition of hyperphosphatemia. There were 14 patients with hypercalcemia among 554 patients and 3 patients with hyperphosphatemia among 348 patients treated with vitamin D, which were corrected by withholding the vitamin D or addition of phosphate binders.
Of the five randomized studies, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia data were reported in four and two studies, respectively. Definition of hypercalcemia was reported only in three studies and hyperphosphatemia in one study. Five patients with hypercalcemia among 148 patients and six patients with hyperphosphatemia among 85 patients treated with vitamin D were reported, all of which resolved by withholding the active vitamin D or phosphate binders.
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