Kidney Today: Was Your Home Affected By The Floods
Ariel: Yes, my home was flooded, and right now Im not able to live there because of the mold and the bad smell. I actually was not expecting my apartment to get flooded because the area that I live in does not typically flood. I had to leave and go to a friends house. I was thankful that I didnt have to go to a shelter.
Can A Healthy Kidney Come From Someone Who Died From A Drug Overdose
Yes, recent studies found no real difference in the five-year survival of those who got organs from overdose death donors compared to other deceased donors. Most people who died of an overdose are labeled “increased infectious risk” donors , because they may have a higher chance of hepatitis C or HIV infection.
Before using any organ or tissue for a transplant, doctors carefully test it to make sure it does not have any infection. Currently, more than one in eight deceased donor transplants are from donors who died of an overdose.
What Can I Expect Emotionally After Donating A Kidney
After donation, living donors often report a wide range of mixed emotions, from joy and relief to anxiety to depression. The process of getting through the evaluation and surgery can be so time-consuming that donors do not always have time to process everything they are feeling. It is normal for these emotions to come to the forefront after the donation and transplant take place.
Living donors generally rate their experience as positive. Different studies indicate that between 80-97% of donors say that in retrospect, they would have still have made the decision to donate.
However, concerns about the recipient’s outcome can contribute to feelings of anxiety, and may donors report a feeling of “let down” afterwards. Feelings of depression among living donors are not uncommon, even when both donor and recipient are doing well.
While extensive data on these issues is lacking, some studies have reported the following psychological outcomes:
- Less than 1% regretted the decision
- 3 to 10% reported depression
- 10% reported “family conflicts”
- 16% concerned about negative financial consequences of donation
- 3 to 15% concerned about a negative impact on their health
Living donors who are struggling with these issues are encouraged to:
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Complete Kidney Failure Stage
Kidney has some important roles to the body function, which include filtering blood, regulating hormones, balancing body fluids, keeping bones healthy, and helping make red blood cells. Thus, a complete kidney failure will likely to affect your body functions significantly. Commonly, kidney disease stages are divided into 5 main stages based on the degree of severity. In the earlier stages, mild symptoms of kidney failure problems can be improved through proper treatment plans and dieting. However, the latest stage, which is stage 5 may require a kidney transplant in order to keep the patient alive.
Why Might I Need A Kidney Transplant
You may need a kidney transplant if you have end stage renal disease. This is a permanent condition of kidney failure. It often needsdialysis. This is a process used to remove wastes and other substances fromthe blood.
Remove urea and liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine. Urea is made when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the blood to the kidneys.
Balance salts, electrolytes, such as potassium and sodium, and other substances in the blood
Produce erythropoietin, a hormone that aids the formation of red blood cells
Regulate blood pressure
Regulate fluid and acid-base balance in the body to keep it neutral. This is needed for normal function of many processes within the body
Some conditions of the kidneys that may result in ESRD include:
Repeated urinary infections
Polycystic kidney disease or other inherited disorders
Glomerulonephritis, which is inflammation of the kidney’s filtering units
Hemolytic uremic syndrome, a rare disorder that causes kidney failure
Lupus and other diseases of the immune system
Other conditions, such as congenital defects of the kidneys, may result inthe need for a kidney transplant.
There may be other reasons for your healthcare provider to recommend akidney transplant.
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Us Kidney Transplant Survival Rates Continue To Improve
Want to Make an Appointment or Need Patient Information?Contact UPMC atGo to Find a Doctor to search for a UPMC doctor.
PITTSBURGH The New England Journal of Medicine
CAPTION: Sundaram Hariharan, M.D., professor of medicine and surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and senior transplant nephrologist, UPMC.
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Which Type Of Dialysis Is Best
In many cases, youâll be able to choose which type of dialysis you want to have and where to have it.
The 2 techniques are equally effective for most people, but each has its own advantages and drawbacks.
- haemodialysis means youâll have 4 treatment-free days a week, but the treatment sessions last longer and you may need to visit hospital each time
- home haemodialysis youâll usually be recommended to have dialysis sessions more often than you would in a clinic, but you can choose a treatment plan that meets your medical needs and fits around your life
- peritoneal dialysis can be done quite easily at home and can sometimes be done while you sleep, but it needs to be done every day
If youâre able to choose the type of dialysis you prefer, your care team will discuss the pros and cons of each option with you to help you make a decision.
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Importance Of Preparation For Signs Of Death
Not every person will exhibit each one of these signs, but most will show several. Since we donât know when death will exactly occur, people often hold vigils by the bedside so that they will be present as the person passes on. Although many people do not want to talk about death, it is a part of life. Understanding and being prepared for the uncomfortable and sometimes scary signs of approaching death will give you the chance to help your loved one and be at peace with the situation yourself.
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Special Programs For Living Donor Transplantation
Many patients have relatives or non-relatives who wish to donate a kidney but are not able to because their blood type or tissue type does not match. In such cases, the donor and recipient are said to be “incompatible.”
See also: National Kidney Registry
Live Donor to Deceased Donor Waiting List Exchange
This program is a way for a living donor to benefit a loved one, even if their blood or tissue types do not match. The donor gives a kidney to another patient who has a compatible blood type and is at the top of the kidney waiting list for a “deceased donor” kidney. In exchange, that donor’s relative or friend would move to a higher position on the deceased donor waiting list, a position equal to that of the patient who received the donor’s kidney.
For example, if the donor’s kidney went to the fourth patient on the deceased donor waiting list, the recipient would move to the fourth spot on the list for his or her blood group and would receive kidney offers once at the top of the list.
Paired Exchange Kidney Transplant
This program is another way for a living donor to benefit a loved one even if their blood or tissue types do not match. A “paired exchange” allows patients who have willing but incompatible donors to “exchange” kidneys with one another-the kidneys just go to different recipients than usually expected.
That means that two kidney transplants and two donor surgeries will take place on the same day at the same time.
Blood Type Incompatible Kidney Transplant
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Who Might Need A Kidney Transplant
A kidney transplant may be an option if your kidneys have stopped working entirely. This condition is called end-stage renal disease or end-stage kidney disease . If you reach this point, your doctor is likely to recommend dialysis.
In addition to putting you on dialysis, your doctor will tell you if they think youre a good candidate for a kidney transplant.
Youll need to be healthy enough to have major surgery and tolerate a strict, lifelong medication regimen after surgery to be a good candidate for a transplant. You must also be willing and able to follow all instructions from your doctor and take your medications regularly.
If you have a serious underlying medical condition, a kidney transplant might be dangerous or unlikely to be successful. These serious conditions include:
- cancer, or a recent history of cancer
Your doctor may also recommend that you dont have a transplant if you:
- drink alcohol in excess
- use illicit drugs
If your doctor thinks youre a good candidate for a transplant and youre interested in the procedure, youll need to be evaluated at a transplant center.
This evaluation usually involves several visits to assess your physical, psychological, and familial condition. The centers doctors will run tests on your blood and urine. Theyll also give you a complete physical exam to ensure youre healthy enough for surgery.
Kidney donors may be either living or deceased.
What Are The Requirements For Kidney Transplant
Is the patient eligible for a transplant?
Before a patient can receive a kidney transplant, he or she must undergo a very detailed medical evaluation.
- This evaluation may take weeks or months and require several visits to the transplant center for tests and examinations.
- The purpose of this thorough evaluation is to test whether the patient would benefit from a transplant and can withstand the rigors of the surgery, antirejection medications, and the adjustment to a new organ.
The medical team, which includes a nephrologist, a transplant surgeon, a transplant coordinator, a social worker, and others, will conduct a series of interviews with the patient and his or her family members.
- The patient will be asked many questions about his or her medical and surgical history, the medications he or she takes and has taken in the past, and habits and lifestyle.
- It will seem like they ask every imaginable question at least twice! It is important that they know every detail about the patient that could bear on a future transplant.
- They also want to make sure the patient is mentally prepared for following the necessary medication regimen.
The patient will also have a complete physical examination. Lab tests and imaging studies complete the evaluation.
Any of the following conditions significantly increase the patient’s chance of rejecting the new kidney and may make him or her ineligible for transplant:
- Alcohol or drug abuse
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What Is A Kidney Transplant
A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure in which a healthy kidney from a living or deceased donor is placed into a person whose kidneys are no longer functional.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs in our body that are located on each side of the spine just below the rib cage. The main function of kidneys is to filter blood and remove the waste products, minerals and other fluid from the blood by producing urine.
When kidney stops functioning properly and loses their filtering ability, it leads to accumulation of waste and harmful levels of fluid in the body. This can lead to increased blood pressure and result in kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease. Kidney failure is considered when the kidneys have lost about 90% of their normal functions.
There are two treatment methods for end-stage kidney disease, namely kidney transplant and dialysis. In dialysis, patients have waste removed from their bloodstream through a machine. Patients on dialysis need to go into a center for treatment 2-3 times a week. Dialysis does not treat or compensate for all the functions of the kidneys while a transplant can.
The important functions of the kidney include:
What Organ Is The Last To Shut Down When You Die
- The digestive system is the first to be affected. When the dying process begins there is a loss of appetite and thirst.
- The brain will also lose function and shut down. This is due to a lack of oxygen attributed to labored breathing and the eventual cessation of breathing.
- The kidneys arenât able to process fluids as before and will also shut down during the dying process.
- The heart and lungs are generally the last organs to shut down when you die. The heartbeat and breathing patterns become irregular as they progressively slow down and fade away.
Also, it is thought that hearing is the last sense to go during the dying process. Donât assume your loved one canât hear you. It is strongly encouraged that you speak to your loved one even if they are unconscious.
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Transplant And Your Lifestyle
A transplant is not a cure. You will still have kidney disease. But, if a transplant works well, your lifestyle may be a lot like it is now:
- You may feel well enough and have the energy to work
- Travel is easy, since you don’t have to set up dialysis
- Your schedule will not have to change, except for doctor visits
- You can eat and drink without strict limits
- You may sleep well at night
- Women who have had transplants can have healthy babies
Whos At Risk Of Acute Kidney Injury
Youâre more likely to get AKI if:
- youâre aged 65 or over
- you already have a kidney problem, such as chronic kidney disease
- you have a long-term disease, such as heart failure, liver disease or diabetes
- youâre dehydrated or unable to maintain your fluid intake independently
- you have a blockage in your urinary tract
- you have a severe infection or
- youâre taking certain medicines, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or blood pressure drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics diuretics are usually beneficial to the kidneys, but may become less helpful when a person is dehydrated or suffering from a severe illness
- youâre given aminoglycosides a type of antibiotic again, this is only an issue if the person is dehydrated or ill, and these are usually only given in a hospital setting
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Rejection Of Kidney Transplant
One of the greatest concerns as a transplant recipient will be that the body’s immune system will reject and attack the transplanted kidney. If not reversed, rejection will destroy the transplanted organ. For this reason, the patient and his or her family must keep aware of warning signs and symptoms of rejection. They must contact the transplant team immediately if any of these symptoms develop.
- Hypertension : This is an ominous sign that the kidney is not functioning properly.
- Swelling or puffiness: This is a sign of fluid retention, usually in the arms, legs, or face.
If the patient is a kidney transplant recipient, any of the following symptoms warrant immediate care at a hospital emergency department, preferably the hospital where the transplant was done.
- Fever: This is a sign of infection.
There Are Mental And Emotional
- Restlessness or agitation which may be a result of less oxygen to the brain, metabolic changes or physical pain.
- Occasional or constant confusion which may be related to separation from the normal routines of living. It may also be the result of a disease, or the dying process.
- Levels of consciousness which may vary.
- Sleepiness, but being able to be awakened and have awareness of the surroundings. The senses may be dulled and there may be little awareness of what is happening in the environment. Sleep may be so deep that the dying person cannot be awakened and is unresponsive.
- During the dying process, changes affecting a persons inner feelings and interpersonal relationships may take place. Looking back at ones life in search of meaning and contributions life review.
- Saying good-bye to people and places, forgiving and being forgiven, facing regrets life closure.
- Acceptance or coming to terms with ongoing losses and eventual death.
- Some individuals may not want or be able to do these things. Take cues from the dying person. Listen, share memories and find ways to say good-bye.
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How Long Does A Kidney Transplant Take
The kidney transplant operation takes about four to six hours. The doctor first removes a kidney from the donors body. The patients own kidneys are generally left in the body in the transplant surgery if they are not causing problems such as in the case of active infection.
The surgeon then places the donated kidney into the lower abdomen and connects it to the blood vessels that supply it, as well as the ureter that carries urine to the bladder. Putting the new kidney in your abdomen also makes it easier to take care of any problems that might come up. The surgery can be done with an open or laparoscopic approach.
Most surgeries, nowadays, are performed via the laparoscopic method, as it is a less invasive approach that involves smaller incisions than open surgery. It offers the advantages of faster recovery and less trauma to the tissues, which reduces the duration of hospitalization and the risk of complications.