About Glomerular Filtration Rate
GFRglomerular filtration rate is the best test to measure your level of kidney function and determine your stage of kidney disease. Your doctor can calculate it from the results of your blood creatinine test, your age, race, gender and other factors.
The earlier kidney disease is detected, the better the chance of slowing or stopping its progression.
Chronic Kidney Disease In The United States 2021
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When people develop chronic kidney disease , their kidneys become damaged and over time may not clean the blood as well as healthy kidneys. If kidneys do not work well, toxic waste and extra fluid accumulate in the body and may lead to high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, and early death. However, people with CKD and people at risk for CKD can take steps to protect their kidneys with the help of their health care providers.
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The Facts About Chronic Kidney Disease
- 37 million American adults have CKD and millions of others are at increased risk.
- Early detection can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure.
- Heart disease is the major cause of death for all people with CKD.
- Glomerular filtration rate is the best estimate of kidney function.
- Hypertension causes CKD and CKD causes hypertension.
- Persistent proteinuria means CKD is present.
- High risk groups include those with diabetes, hypertension and family history of kidney failure.
- African Americans, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, American Indians and Seniors are at increased risk.
- Two simple tests can detect CKD: blood pressure, urine albumin and serum creatinine.
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Looking After Your Emotional Wellbeing And Coping With Anxiety
Sarah, a counsellor at Kidney Care UK, spoke at our webinar in November about how people can cope with the anxiety created by the Covid pandemic. She also spoke about how to cope with situations you may find particularly stressful.
At the end of this guidance we have provided links to sources of further help and information.
How can I cope with the anxiety brought on by the pandemic?
Sarah explained that we deal with anxiety all the time and it is very normal to feel anxious at times. But since the pandemic has started most peoples baseline anxiety has gone up because we feel like so much is out of our control. There are constant news broadcasts and lockdowns gave us time for us to focus on anxiety. So we need to think how we can reduce our base rate anxiety to help us cope better day to day.
It is also really important to recognise what you have already achieved. We are coming into our second full year of this pandemic and you are still here. You have coped with kidney disease as well as the pandemic. You are managing and you can do this.
Im still shielding and planning to do so over winter. This is making me feel pretty low and hopeless, what can I do to help myself cope emotionally with this?
Routines and planning activities to keep your spirits up
Is it normal to feel anxious in crowded situations like public transport? What can I do to calm myself?
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Relieving Symptoms And Problems Caused By Chronic Kidney Disease
If chronic kidney disease becomes severe you may need treatment to combat various problems caused by the poor kidney function. For example:
- Anaemia may develop which may need treatment with iron or erythropoietin – a hormone normally made by the kidneys.
- Abnormal levels of calcium or phosphate in the blood may need treatment.
- You may be advised about how much fluid to drink, and how much salt to take.
- Other dietary advice may be given which can help to control factors such as the level of calcium and potassium in your body.
If end-stage kidney failure develops, you are likely to need kidney dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive.
People with stage 3 CKD or worse should be immunised against influenza each year, and have a one-off immunisation against pneumococcus. People with stage 4 CKD should be immunised against hepatitis B.
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Stage 3 Kidney Disease Diet
Processed foods are extremely hard on the body. Since your kidneys are responsible for removing wastes and balancing electrolytes, eating too many of the wrong foods can overload your kidneys.
Its important to eat more whole foods like produce and grains, and to eat fewer processed foods and less of the saturated fats found in animal products.
A doctor may recommend decreasing your protein intake. If your potassium levels are too high from CKD, they may also recommend that you avoid certain high-potassium foods like bananas, potatoes, and tomatoes.
The same principle pertains to sodium. You may need to cut down on salty foods if your sodium levels are too high.
Weight loss is common in more advanced stages of CKD because of appetite loss. This can also put you at risk of malnutrition.
If youre experiencing appetite loss, consider eating smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day to make sure youre getting enough calories and nutrients.
What Are The Symptoms Of Stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease
Most people dealing with stage 3 kidney disease usually dont exhibit visible symptoms. However, some patients who have this condition may experience the following:
- Pain in the lower back
- Fluid retention
- Red, orange, or dark yellow urine
- Urinating more or less frequently than normal
- Insomnia and other sleeping problems
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What Are The Causes Of Kidney Failure
It depends on the type of kidney failure or kidney injury. Acute renal failure has a sudden onset that happens in days. In contrast, chronic kidney failure has a progressive and slow beginning that may take months even years.
Having kidney failure means that 85% to 90% of kidney function is gone. The following are the causes for each one of the possible scenarios of kidney failure.
Impact Of Stage 3 Kidney Disease On Your Health
Depending on how far your kidney disease has progressed, you will fit into one of the five stages of kidney disease. These stages are measured by your glomerular filtration rate or your GFR. Having stage 3 kidney disease means that you will have a GFR between 30 and 59.
Most people who have stage 3 kidney disease will not have any symptoms. However, if you do, it can manifest as swelling in your hands or feet, back pain, or irregular urination patterns.
The more impactful symptoms of kidney disease stage 3 are the health implications of your decreased kidney functioning such as high blood pressure, anemia, and bone disease.
Ultimately, if stage 3 kidney disease goes untreated or progresses further, you will enter into stage 4 kidney disease. Stage 4 kidney disease is severe, as are its symptoms. It is also the last stage of kidney disease before kidney failure at this point, you will need to talk to your doctor to prepare for kidney failure. â
If your kidneys fail, you will either need to have dialysis or a kidney transplant. Dialysis is a treatment that will clean your blood. You will need to think about which kind of dialysis you will want, as there are different types available. The other option, a kidney transplant, is when you find a donor who gives you a healthy kidney from their body. If you get a transplant, you will not need to do dialysis.
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Preventing Or Slowing Down The Progression Of Chronic Kidney Disease
There are ways to stop chronic kidney disease becoming any worse or to slow down any progression. You should have checks every now and then by your GP or practice nurse to monitor your kidney function – the eGFR test. They will also give you treatment and advice on how to prevent or slow down the progression of CKD. This usually includes:
- Blood pressure control. The most important treatment to prevent or delay the progression of chronic kidney disease, whatever the underlying cause, is to keep your blood pressure well controlled. Most people with CKD will require medication to control their blood pressure. Depending on the amount of albumin in your urine, your doctor may recommend a target blood pressure level to aim for of below 140/90 mm Hg or 130/80 mm Hg, and even lower in some circumstances. For children and young people with CKD and high levels of albumin in the urine, blood pressure should be kept less than average for their height.
- Review of your medication. Certain medicines can affect the kidneys as a side-effect which can make CKD worse. For example, if you have CKD you should not take anti-inflammatory medicines unless advised to by a doctor. You may also need to adjust the dose of certain medicines that you may take if your CKD gets worse.
- Diet. if you have more advanced CKD then you will need to follow a special diet. See the separate leaflet called Diet in Chronic Kidney Disease.
What Are The Symptoms Of Ckd
Most people may not have any severe symptoms until their kidney disease is advanced. However, you may notice that you:
The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure, which are responsible for up to two-thirds of the cases. Diabetes happens when your blood sugar is too high, causing damage to many organs in your body, including the kidneys and heart, as well as blood vessels, nerves and eyes. High blood pressure, or hypertension, occurs when the pressure of your blood against the walls of your blood vessels increases. If uncontrolled, or poorly controlled, high blood pressure can be a leading cause of heart attacks, strokes and chronic kidney disease. Also, chronic kidney disease can cause high blood pressure.
Other conditions that affect the kidneys are:
- feel more tired and have less energy
- have trouble concentrating
- have muscle cramping at night
- have swollen feet and ankles
- have puffiness around your eyes, especially in the morning
- have dry, itchy skin
- need to urinate more often, especially at night.
Anyone can get chronic kidney disease at any age. However, some people are more likely than others to develop kidney disease. You may have an increased risk for kidney disease if you:
- have diabetes
- have a family history of kidney failure
- are older
- belong to a population group that has a high rate of diabetes or high blood pressure, such as African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian, Pacific Islanders, and American Indians.
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Treatment Of Kidney Disease Stage 3
Once you are diagnosed with stage 3 kidney disease, there is no way to treat the damage that has already been done to your kidneys. The following steps for your treatment have to do with treating the issues caused by decreased kidney functioning and preventing further damage.
These treatments include:
- Monitoring your weight to remain healthy
- Attending to anemia
Additionally, you may need to take medications. Which medications and even if you need to take them entirely depends on the cause of your kidney disease. Some of these medications could be:
- An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor which lowers your blood pressure
- An angiotensin receptor blocker which would also lower your blood pressure
- Diuretics to help flush out waste
- Any type of medication that could help lower your cholesterol
- Erythropoietin which helps build red blood cells for people who struggle with anemia
- Vitamin D to strengthen the bones and avoid bone loss
- A phosphate binder
Diagnosing Chronic Kidney Disease
Diagnosis of chronic kidney disease is important because the earlier the diagnosis the earlier treatment can begin to help protect the kidneys.
Those at higher risk for developing chronic kidney disease should talk to their healthcare provider about when to test for kidney disease. Having diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a family history of kidney failure can all put you at a higher risk for developing kidney disease.
Early chronic kidney disease often does not have symptoms. Diagnosing the disease requires medical tests. These tests include the eGFR blood test to check kidney function and urine tests that check for protein.
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So What You Should Know About Stage 3 Kidney Disease Life Expectancy
You do not have to worry about stage 3 kidney disease life expectancy. If the disease is detected in the early stage or at stage 3A, the condition can be reversible. That is, you can prevent further damage to your kidney and with simple dietary habits, you can prolong your kidney life. However, the stage should not be neglected i.e. proper care is not taken, this might damage your kidney or permanently damage them. For the worst case scenario, you might have to transplant your kidney.
Trends In Life Expectancy
A review of annual reports from the USRDS in the period 19962013 reveals that the life expectancy for a 36-year-old man on haemodialysis has improved steadily and linearly from 7.2 years in 1996 to 11.5 years in 2013 . Thus, one can anticipate that our current projections of life expectancy probably err on the pessimistic side of reality. This is supported by a detailed analysis of paediatric outcome over the period 19902010 .
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What Is The Outlook For Chronic Kidney Disease
Stages 1-3 chronic kidney disease are common, with most cases occurring in older people. It tends to become gradually worse over months or years. However, the rate of progression varies from case to case, and often depends on the severity of any underlying condition. For example, some kidney conditions may cause your kidney function to become worse relatively quickly. However, in most cases, chronic kidney disease progresses only very slowly.
For many people with CKD there is a much higher risk of developing serious CVD than of developing end-stage kidney failure.
In short, the following can make a big difference to your outlook :
- Attention to blood pressure control.
- Careful review of medications to make sure that the only ones used are those which put least strain on kidneys.
- Tackling factors that reduce your risk of developing CVDs.
Treatments For Kidney Failure
The two treatments for kidney failure are kidney transplantation and dialysis. Two different types of dialysis can be done – hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
To learn more about each type of treatment, see “Choosing a Treatment for Kidney Failure” in the A-to-Z Guide.
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How Common Is Chronic Kidney Disease
About 1 in 10 people have some degree of chronic kidney disease. It can develop at any age and various conditions can lead to CKD. It becomes more common with increasing age and is more common in women.
Although about half of people aged 75 or more have some degree of chronic kidney disease, most of these people do not actually have diseases of their kidneys they have normal ageing of their kidneys.
Most cases of CKD are mild or moderate .
Later Stages Of Kidney Disease: Stages 3 4 And 5
Many people with CKD arent diagnosed till the disease has advanced, as symptoms often dont appear till kidney function is at 25% or less. CKD is a progressive disease that worsens slowly over a period of years and leads to . With kidney failure, waste products must be cleaned out of your blood by mechanical means. Here are the life expectancies for later stages of chronic kidney disease, though individual experiences and life spans vary widely:
- Stage 3 Kidney Disease: You may not have symptoms, but your creatine levels indicate some damage to your kidneys. At this relatively early stage, you do not need dialysis or a kidney transplant. Life expectancy for stage 3 kidney disease differs between men and women. A 40-year-old man has a typical life expectancy of 24 years after diagnosis, and a 40-year-old woman with the same diagnosis has a life expectancy of 28 years.
- Stage 4 Kidney Disease: The kidneys are significantly damaged. Kidney failure becomes likely, which will require or a kidney transplant. A 40-year-old man with stage 4 kidney disease has a life expectancy of 14 years after diagnosis, while a 40-year-old woman can expect to live 16 more years. The right diet and medication may still slow disease progression.
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Arranging For Hospice Care
While some types of kidney disease can be treated, chronic kidney disease has no cure and requires frequent dialysis treatments or a kidney transplant. If you or a loved one is unable to utilize these treatments, it may be time to consider hospice care services. Hospice care helps ensure that people facing terminal illnesses are as comfortable as possible as they spend their last few months at home. Services can include a number of pain management, mental health services, and spiritual counseling options, depending on the patients needs.
Contact Harbor Light Hospice for more information about stage 3 kidney failure or about hospice services for a loved one progressing in the kidney failure stages. Harbor Light Hospice provides customized care plans for people with terminal illnesses to help them remain comfortable and receive care in their own homes. Its teams of doctors, nurse practitioners, and therapists are specially trained to help patients and their families move through this difficult period of life, offering expert guidance and support and using a variety of resources throughout the process.